Publications

Publications

Handbooks

19-16 - Commander and Staff Guide to the Battlefield Coordination Detachment Handbook
PDF | Published 03 Jun 2019
This handbook is designed to inform Army leaders of the BCD's functions, roles, and capabilities, along with best practices and lessons from numerous exercises, experiments, and named operations. These insights should prove invaluable to all Army leaders, newly assigned BCD personnel, and organizations that work with BCDs.

19-08 - Musicians of Mars III Handbook
PDF | Published 12 Feb 2019
Musicians of Mars III “The Cobra Strikes” picks up the tale of LTC Milner and Task Force Mustang in the aftermath of their successful defense (in CALL Handbook 16-12, Musicians of Mars II) of engagement area Blackjack. The responses to that publication from our tactical audiences was that there was appetite for a follow-on publication that emphasized offensive operations. This volume delivers. As with Musicians of Mars II, this handbook takes the reader through a fictional scenario where the tactical leaders make decisions, some good and some not so good, that impact subsequent actions. Musicians of Mars III will have its leaders learning and improving as they progress through tactical engagements. This was intentional in the development of this publication, and is designed to facilitate tactical discussions at the company and platoon levels.

19-06 - Advising at the Senior Level Handbook
PDF | Published 01 Feb 2019
Advising at the Senior Level offers advisors at senior or ministerial levels a perspective on operating more efficiently with international governments, ministries of defense, embassies, and foreign security forces. It bridges gaps in expertise when advising at the ministerial level through insights and best practices -- highlighting what senior advisors do, how the operational environment differs, and describing how to integrate through the processes of the Department of Defense, Department of State, and the partner nation. Our purpose is to provide key insights and best practices for senior advisors in a convenient reference that enables their work at the ministry, department, and component levels. The insights in this handbook are applicable down to the tactical level and should be shared widely.

18-37: The Army Combat Fitness Test Handbook
PDF | Published 27 Sep 2018
This handbook is a compilation of products developed by the Center for Initial Military Training (CIMT) in preparation for the Army-wide implementation of the ACFT. Refinements are expected as testing units provide feedback, but in the interim, this handbook provides commanders, leaders, and Soldiers with a guide to preparing for and administering the ACFT.

18-33 - Transition to a Joint Force Headquarters - Planning Insights for Echelons Above Brigade Handbook
PDF | Published 02 Aug 2018
The Transition to a Joint Force Headquarters - Planning Insights for Echelons Above Brigade Handbook leverages Center for Army Lessons Learned collections in active joint operation areas and joint exercises to provide commanders and staffs at echelons above brigade a guide to transitioning to a joint force headquarters. Our purpose is to provide key insights, lessons, and best practices for commanders and staffs at echelons above brigade for forming and operating as a joint headquarters. The areas of emphasis in this handbook are: forming the joint headquarters; planning and operating in the joint/combined operating environment; building the command and control architecture; integrating force enablers; and, leveraging joint, interorganizational, and multinational processes.

18-28: Operating in a Denied, Degraded, and Disrupted Space Operational Environment Handbook
PDF | Published 15 Jun 2018
The space domain is a vital component of the emerging concept of multi-domain battle and the warfighter is reliant on the capabilities it provides to be successful in executing operations. This collaboratively produced handbook will give the warfighter techniques and strategies to successfully operate in a denied, degraded, and disrupted space operational environment (D3SOE).

18-24: The First 100 Days of Platoon Leadership Handbook
PDF | Published 15 May 2018
This volume for new platoon leaders and platoon sergeants contains insights on leadership, training management, Army systems, and more. Vignettes and lessons from current and former platoon-level leaders allow newly assigned leaders to learn from those who have gone before.

18-16: Maneuver Leader's Guide to Stinger
PDF | Published 26 Apr 2018
The Chief of Staff of the Army directed the Army to execute a plan to increase short-range air defense (SHORAD) capability. The immediate solution is to train and arm teams of Soldiers organic to select brigade combat teams with Stinger missiles. This directive is one line of effort as the force structure for a dedicated maneuver SHORAD capability increases. This handbook is meant to serve as a guide for the maneuver leader to help train and employ their Stinger teams.

18-06 - Leader’s Guide to Digital Liaison Detachment handbook
PDF | Published 29 Dec 2017
This handbook provides leaders and supporting staff in the operational Army with an overview of how to plan, train, and leverage the capabilities of digital liaison detachments (DLDs) that render a critical capability for mission command liaison and interoperability. Also included are operational insights from Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) assessment teams during exercises Anakonda 16 and Saber Guardian 17. DLDs are assigned or attached to selected theater armies and Army Service component commands. They are employed at theater armies or in support of corps and division echelons. These teams provide an Army Forces (ARFOR) commander with the capability to conduct liaison with subordinate or parallel joint and multinational headquarters within the operational area.

18-04 - Mission Command in the Division and Corps Support Area Handbook
PDF | Published 21 Dec 2017
During warfighter exercises, it had become apparent that division and corps commanders were challenged with mission command of forces in their support areas. The commander of United States Army Forces Command directed commanders to establish a support area command post (SACP) to improve mission command. The Army’s new Field Manual (FM) 3-0, Operations (06 OCT 2017), incorporates this guidance by modifying the geographical organization of an area of operations. FM 3-0 scales down the size of the support area and adds a consolidation area. The consolidation area will be assigned to a maneuver brigade or division. This enables the maneuver enhancement brigade (MEB) to perform its traditional mission and focus efforts on operations in the support area. FM 3-0 formalizes the requirement for divisions and corps to establish a SACP (its doctrinal name, which is used throughout this handbook) to assist in controlling operations in the support and consolidation areas. This handbook provides divisions, corps, and their enablers several ways to implement recent guidance and doctrine for mission command in their support and consolidation areas. It provides the new doctrine that has been released in FM 3-0 as well as examples of how divisions and corps have employed their SACPs.

17-13: Tactical Combat Casualty Care Handbook, Version 5
PDF | Published 17 May 2017
Tactical Combat Casualty Care Handbook updated to reflect current best practices for 2017

17-03 Theater Security Cooperation: The Military Engagement Team Handbook
PDF | Published 20 Jan 2017
This handbook describes the Military Engagement Team (MET) and its use in strengthening and building partnerships. Additionally it describes MET structure, training and operational employment as well as its training and structure. This handbook will provide value for future MET members in order to better understand the MET. It is also useful for MET and non MET members alike who will be conducting engagements with partner nations.

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Newsletters

10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) the last CJFLCC Iraq-- A Series of Thoughts on Transitioning from Combat Operations to Enabling Civil Authority (Iraq) Newsletter
PDF | Published 03 May 2019
The 10th Mountain Division deployed its Headquarters to Iraq in February 2018 to assume the role of Combined Joint Forces Land Component Command. However, the Division deployed during a period of transition to a new Headquarters construct within the Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF), and found itself rapidly adjusting to a change of mission once on the ground. The Division staff was instrumental in shaping the new CJTF Headquarters and played key roles in understanding the operational environment and operationalizing the Reliable Partnership plan. The focus of the Division on working with the Iraqi Security Force (ISF) has been fundamental in its efforts to set the theater for Phase IV (stability) and Phase V (enable civil authority). This Newsletter focuses on the 10th Mountain Division’s experience dealing with the initial transition of the Army Headquarters and mission in Iraq.

90-6 The Musicians of Mars: A Story of Synchronization For The Company/Team Commander - Newsletter
PDF | Published 02 May 2019
“The Musicians of Mars: A Story of Synchronization for the Company/Team Commander” is the first volume in the four-volume series of CALL publications. The books draw their name from a quote from MG George S. Patton in 1941. He describes commanders on the battlefield as akin to conductors of fine orchestras: “There is still a tendency in each separate unit ... To be a one-handed puncher. By that I mean the rifleman wants to shoot, the tanker to charge, the artilleryman to fire ... That is not the way to win battles. If the band played a piece first with the piccolo, then with the brass horn, then with the clarinet, and then with the trumpet there would be a hell of a lot of noise but no music. To get harmony in music each instrument must support the others. To get harmony in battle, each weapon must support the other. Team play wins. You musicians of Mars ... Must come into the concert at the proper place and at the proper time.”

This volume tells a story of synchronization from the maneuver team commander's perspective. It is not intended to be the perfect solution, rather a story showing the critical tasks that most commonly cause units to not meet their training objectives. The characters and the battles are fictional, the story is not. The successes and failures are found everyday as units around the world train for their concert with Mars. Our intent is for the reader to finish with a better understanding of synchronization and how better to prepare themselves and their soldiers to become "Musicians of Mars."

CALL Insider Newsletter 2nd Quarter, FY19
PDF | Published 15 Apr 2019
The CALL Insider for 2nd Quarter, FY 19, features a synopsis of CALL products published during the January-March timeframe, a glimpse at what is coming soon, updates from our liaisons at the combat training center, and other news you can use.

19-03 - Multinational Joint Forcible Entry Operations Blue Flag/JWA 2018 Newsletter
PDF | Published 19 Dec 2018
In May of 2018, 7,000 personnel from 162 organizations representing the militaries of the United States and nine NATO partners converged on five training sites in southern Germany as part of the U.S. Army’s first Joint Warfighting Assessment (JWA). The common goal was to advance their collective ability to overcome aggression from a near-peer competitor in Europe. In pursuit of this goal, they trained to fight as a single, cohesive, and multinational division against a near-peer adversary. This training produced numerous lessons, many of which are detailed throughout this publication, about how to foster interoperability and about which concepts and capabilities will enable multi-domain operations (MDO). JWA 18 was an important step forward for the Army as it seeks to adapt the force to the demands of a rapidly changing and complex world.

CALL Insider Newsletter 1st Quarter, FY2019
PDF | Published 17 Dec 2018
After almost six months as CALL Director, I've made a few organizational changes that are primarily invisible to you, but are efforts that further CALL’s mission in driving change and supporting the Army as it transitions to a large-scale ground combat operations focus. Expect to see our products and collections reflect that change as we support exercises and deliver handbooks and other publications.

CALL Insider Newsletter September 2018
PDF | Published 12 Sep 2018
This is an exciting and challenging time to be a Soldier. As the new Director of the Center for Army Lessons Learned, my principal goal is to continue our organization?s service as one of the drivers of Army change and the Army?s daily focal point for adaptive learning ? providing timely and relevant knowledge to our warfighters. Our Army?s warfighting shift from counterinsurgency to near or peer competition and conflict requires deliberate learning, sharing, and training for large-scale operations.

CALL Insider Newsletter MAY-JUN 2018
PDF | Published 25 Jul 2018
One of my regrets as I wrap up my two years as the Director of CALL and 30 years of military service is that I did not give enough back to the Army so that the Army as a whole could learn. I was very good at conducting unit After Action Reviews and implementing unit-level changes, but was not good at informing the Army institution through writing articles to periodicals and submitting After Action Reports to CALL and others to use in driving necessary changes for problem resolution and to share best practices for adoption by others. This is an inherent responsibility for every member of the Army and particularly for Commanders. The better we do at this the more ready and lethal we will be. Learn from my lesson and do better at this than I did.

CALL Insider Newsletter Mar-Apr 2018
PDF | Published 17 May 2018
In my almost two years as CALL Director, I’ve asked for and received feedback from Soldiers and leaders in the field: What products are you using? What topics should we be covering? How can we keep you informed on trends in the force? We have always listened, and whenever possible, we have taken steps to drive change and improve our processes. On this note, I am pleased to announce an upcoming product that incorporates two feedback initiatives. Our “The First 100 Days for Platoon Leadership” handbook, expected publication in May, is a direct result of Soldier input to members of our collection teams. Further, we are making it available via our new pre-order capability. Now you can visit our CAC-enabled website, select items for pre-order, and have those products sent directly to your unit as soon as they arrive at the Army Training Support Center warehouse. Please let us know how this initiative is working at your level.

CALL Insider Newsletter Jan-Feb 2018
PDF | Published 01 Mar 2018
CALL Insider Newsletter Jan-Feb 2018

18-10 - Brigade Sustainment in Decisive Action Operations Newsletter
PDF | Published 02 Feb 2018
The following collection outlines observations and best practices from the National Training Center (NTC). It exposes the challenges of providing sustainment in a decisive action environment but should assist units to tie the sustainment plan with the scheme of maneuver. It should also help develop home station training to address current gaps and shortfalls observed at the NTC.

18-08 Defense Institution Building Perspectives on Ministerial Advising Newsletter
PDF | Published 18 Jan 2018

The topics examined in this newsletter include the following:

  • How illicit actors function as primary roadblocks in the path to peace.
  • How the DIB program at the U.S. European Command works with partner nations to help these nations move toward intellectual interoperability with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
  • How NATO is building the Afghan government’s capacity to sustain itself into the future.
  • How to
    • Interact with senior foreign officials in the Islamic world.
    • Apply lessons learned when advising the Afghan Army Chief of the General Staff.
    • Address coalition lessons and responsibilities in Afghan corruption reform.
    • Advise the Afghan Minister of Defense.

CALL Insider Newsletter SEP-NOV 2017
PDF | Published 30 Nov 2017
Recently, I read an article from MAJ John Spencer at Modern War Institute and published in the Washington Post that really hit home for me. In “How the Military is Making it Hard to Remember our Wars,” MAJ Spencer notes the unfortunate loss of historical records during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan because of a lack of individual knowledge and established procedures when we transitioned from paper-based to digitally-based records. The magnitude of this loss in terms of history and lessons for the Army is incalculable. Here at CALL, we are committed to collecting, archiving, and sharing lessons from the field, so the importance of units saving and forwarding that information to us cannot be overstated. This effort guides all of our actions.

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News from the Front

NFTF - Fighting with Afghan Fists: Insights from CSM Todd Sims
PDF | Published 04 Jun 2019
This News from the Front, a Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) publication, highlights Command Sergeant Major (CSM) Todd Sims’ insights and observations during his deployment in support of Operation FREEDOM’S SENTINEL and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-led RESOLUTE SUPPORT mission. The interview and unit information is provided solely by the CSM of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan on 2 December 2018.

News From The Front: NATO Standardization Agreements (STANAG) for Commanders and Staff
PDF | Published 28 May 2019
This news from the front is the result of a CALL study analyzing recent exercises in Europe that determined common interoperability areas for improvement. When operating with a European based multinational force, what are the NATO Standardization Agreements (STANAG) for interoperability? After identifying areas for improvement, CALL conducted a review of NATO STANAGs and publications to address those issues. This publication informs the force of NATO STANAGs to consider enabling success in the next multinational exercise.

NFTF - Lessons in HQs Evolution for Commanders and Staff, Reorganizing a CJTF-OIR HQs
PDF | Published 06 May 2019
This News From the Front article provides a history of CJTF-OIR headquarters evolution and actions taken by the staff to plan, prepare, and execute organizational change from 1 December 2017 to 28 February 2018.

News From The Front: Achieving Unity of Effort - A Case Study in Leadership
PDF | Published 02 May 2019
Military operations are fundamentally joint, interagency, and multinational (JIM) in character (multi-state in the case of National Guard units) requiring contributions from multiple JIM partners (or states). Achieving unity of effort in the execution of the mission will be critical to reducing both the risks of failure and the costs of success. This News From the Front examines the 35th Combat Aviation Brigade’s mission in support of Operation INHERENT RESOLVE and their trials and tribulations to achieve unity of effort.

News From the Front - Operation Sentinel French Homeland Security Operation
PDF | Published 15 Apr 2019
This interview, conducted by the Center for Army Lessons Learned, captures the insights from Colonel Pierre-Olivier Marchand, French Army, who was commander of an artillery regiment in the 11th Airborne Brigade when tasked with leading one of the task forces responsible for conducting Operation Sentinel in Paris.

NFTF - Multinational Interoperability: Tactical-level considerations in Afghanistan
PDF | Published 08 Mar 2019
This article highlights Task Force (TF) Manchu operations, activities, and actions focusing on deployment train-up, mission planning, and mission execution. The TF executed three lines of effort (LOEs) in support of Operation Freedom Sentinel: 1. Protecting the largest base in Afghanistan (Bagram Airfield), 2. Disrupting the enemy, and 3. Enabling Afghan partners. The seamless execution of these LOEs helped TF Manchu excel at multinational interoperability.

NFTF - Tactical Staff Considerations for Winning In a Denied, Degraded, and Disrupted Space Operational Environment
PDF | Published 26 Feb 2019
This paper discusses the space equities within the electromagnetic spectrum, specifically the military's reliance on Global Positioning System (GPS); satellite communications (SATCOM); and space-based intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance platforms, as well as the corresponding mitigating tasks necessary to retain the Unites States' advantage in space. The ability of the U.S. Army to operate in a D3SOE ensures increased levels of force protection for its Soldiers while preserving its means to deliver devastating effects upon enemy forces.

NFTF -- Filling Operational Capability Gaps in Theater
PDF | Published 21 Feb 2019
This article describes how Combined Joint Task Force-Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR) worked toward implementing the Over the Horizon (OtH) concept. In a changing operational environment (OE) with limited resources and the need to seize opportunities, CJTF-OIR utilized available theater forces as an expeditious means to surge capacity where and when needed.

Critical Enablers to Conducting Effective Advise, Assist, Accompany and Enable (A3E) Missions
PDF | Published 15 Feb 2019
This article examines 1st Squadron, 98th Cavalry Regiment, 155th Armored Brigade Combat Team (Mississippi National Guard) in its advise, assist, accompany and enable (A3E) mission with the Iraqi 9th Armored Division. It covers a variety of observations, lessons, and insights from training to cultural awareness. It also addresses the inevitable challenges associated with an A3E mission and the reconciliation to reinforce the trust and relationship building with a partner nation.

NFTF - Commanders Guide for Driving Change: The Learning Organization Framework
PDF | Published 29 Jan 2019
Is your unit consistently focused one or two echelons below, with fast approaching training events, missions, and 50 meter targets, without much consideration for sharing observations and lessons upon completion of events? If so, you are not alone -- this is a common pitfall of our busy profession; however, it is a resolvable issue given a relevant Learning Organization Framework. Highly developed learning organizations place emphasis on long-term problem solving, consistently modifying behavior, and sharing observations and lessons across the Army enterprise. To address the challenges of becoming a learning organization, leaders apply foresight, insight, and the education and training space required to create the conditions for learning. To effectively learn and ultimately solve problems, a process for developing, observing, capturing, sharing, and modifying lessons can be integrated into training and mission plans.

NFTF - Theater Intelligence Primer
PDF | Published 17 Jan 2019
The intent of this primer is to educate commanders and senior staff to be involved, supportive consumers of intelligence. The goal is not to repeat doctrine—although doctrine references are noted. It provides the means by which the Combatant Command Commander (CCDR) can develop relationships with the defense intelligence enterprise and drive the intelligence effort. It places emphasis on how intelligence professionals should work to understand what the J5/J3/CCDR needs, and share the tools they have available.

News From the Front - The 404th Civil Affairs Battalion: Enabling Capacity Building Through English Discussion Groups (EDGs): The Pros and Cons
PDF | Published 10 Dec 2018
English Discussion Groups (EDGs) have been an enduring mission of the Civil Affairs Battalion (CA BN) in Djibouti since 2007. EDGs are not new to the Army and are considered a component of capacity building, but this type of mission has not been addressed in civil affairs doctrine since the late sixties. It has, however, reemerged as a priority line of effort for the CA BN deployed to Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa in Djibouti. This document describes the various EDGs currently in operation in Djibouti and is meant to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of this as an enabling activity in the region. The information is presented from the perspective of the Civil Information Management Cell officer-in-charge.

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Other Products

GTA 30-04-001- Information Collection Rehearsal (IC RX)
PDF | Published 25 Apr 2019
This GTA provides information on when to conduct the information collection rehearsal and how to validate the information collection (IC) plan, the allocation of IC assets by phase, and the intelligence architecture by phase.

GTA 11-02-001 Retrans Mission Checklist
PDF | Published 25 Apr 2019
This GTA provides the reader with a checklist in order to accomplish a retransmission mission.

19-13 - Mission Command Training in Unified Land Operations FY18 Key Observations Bulletin
PDF | Published 25 Mar 2019
Mission Command Training Program (MCTP) trains Army functional/multi-functional/maneuver brigades, divisions, expeditionary sustainment commands (ESCs), corps, special operations units, and U.S. Air Force personnel in mission command and unified land operations. In accordance with the U.S. Army’s combat training center programs and the Chief of Staff of the Army’s training guidance, MCTP conducted five multi-echelon warfighter exercises (WFXs) and six brigade-level WFXs during fiscal year 2018 (FY18). Together, these exercises met the training objectives of more than 60 units. Additionally, MCTP worked closely with the Joint Staff J-7 and other training partners to infuse joint context within a WFX to properly stimulate a corps training audience in preparation for its future role as a joint task force (JTF).

19-10 - Set The Theater Catalog
PDF | Published 06 Mar 2019
This catalog provides references for commanders and staff to enhance their understanding of the concept and details of setting a theater. The resources listed include current doctrine, handbooks, articles and other publications focused on setting the theater.

News From the CTC: Leveraging Information at the BDE level
PDF | Published 14 Dec 2018
Information related capabilities (IRCs) such as military deception, civil affairs, electronic warfare, or cyber operations can be effectively exercised during phase III operations at the brigade (BDE) level. Successfully integrating IRCs improves BDE operations during all phases. Units have varying degrees of success in leveraging information for phase III. Here are trends Observer, Coach, Trainers (OC/Ts) at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center (JMRC) observed from U.S. and NATO Allies and partners as they executed decisive action (DATE) rotations.

News From the CTC: Leveraging Information at the Brigade Level
PDF | Published 14 Dec 2018
Information related capabilities (IRCs) can be effectively exercised during Phase III operations at the brigade (BDE) level. Successfully integrating IRCs improves BDE operations during all phases. Units have varying degrees of success in leveraging information for Phase III. This article outlines some observations Observer, Coach, Trainers at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center made regarding U.S. and NATO Allies and partners as they executed decisive action rotations.

19-01: Security Cooperation and the State Partnership Program Bulletin
PDF | Published 23 Oct 2018
The State Partnership Program (SPP) is a Department of Defense (DOD) security cooperation program, managed and administered by the National Guard Bureau (NGB), executed and coordinated by the geographic combatant commands (GCCs), with personnel sourced by the National Guard. It is an innovative, small-footprint tool supporting the security cooperation goals of the GCCs and the U.S. Chief of Mission (CoM) for the partner nation (PN). This publication provides an overview of program highlights and activities.

News From the CTC: Questions of MGS PLT Relationships Within the SBCT
PDF | Published 10 Oct 2018
The purpose of this article is to discuss the command and control relationship and employment of the mobile gun system (MGS) platoon within the Stryker Brigade. The observations have been collected by the JMRC Observer Controllers during a unit's rotational exercise.

Director's Action Group Report - Considerations for Multi-Domain Operation Success
PDF | Published 28 Sep 2018
This primer proffers a consideration for the identification of a functional combatant command as the lead DOD entity to integrate, synchronize, and coordinate multi-domain operations (MDO) across the United States Government (USG). This primer also includes planning considerations for commanders to employ MDO.

Director's Action Group Report - The Next Arms Race
PDF | Published 28 Sep 2018
Within the next 10-20 years technological advancements will be the catalyst for the next arms race. Unlike the nuclear build-up of the Cold War, the next arms race will centrally focus on two lines of efforts: autonomous systems using artificial intelligence (AI) with humans-out-of-the loop, and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon systems.

News From the CTC: Questions of MGS Platoon Relationships within SBCT
PDF | Published 20 Sep 2018
The purpose of this article is to discuss the command and control relationship and employment of the mobile gun system (MGS) platoon within the Stryker Brigade. The observations have been collected by the JMRC Observer Controllers during the unit’s rotational exercise.

News From the CTC: Saber Guardian 17 ISB Operations
PDF | Published 18 Sep 2018
In July 2017, more than 25,000 service members from 22+ nations participated in one of the largest exercises in the Black Sea Region as part of exercise Saber Guardian 17 (SG 17). Key highlights of the exercise included the successful insertion of multinational airborne and special operations forces into multiple locations of the joint operations area and the use of an intermediate staging base (ISB) in Hungary to build combat power enroute.The goal of this paper is to provide insights, lessons learned, best practices, tactics, techniques, and procedures and other observations made by Observer Coach/Trainer (OC/T) teams from the Joint Multinational Readiness Center on the complexities of ISB operations during SG 17.

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