Publications

Publications

Handbooks

16-29 - DATE at the JMRC Vol. III: Multinational Interoperability Handbook
PDF | Published 26 Sep 2016
The tactical lessons in multinational interoperability contained in this newsletter are not unique to the NATO alliance but are, however, transcendent to any situation in which a military coalition of nations must form, build a cohesive team, and operate seamlessly against a common enemy at the tactical level of warfare. This newsletter's collection of articles is intended to supplement and reinforce those lessons described in our publication of the Multinational Interoperability Reference Guide (CALL Handbook 16-18). Thus, the goal is to provide tactical-level insights and lessons gleaned from numerous multinational exercises that military leaders can use to logically approach the complexities of interoperability in multinational environments.

16-22 Joint Forces Command Operation United Assistance Case Study Handbook
PDF | Published 02 Aug 2016
The Department of the Army chose the Southern European Task Force to become the Army component headquarters for U.S. Africa Command (USAFRICOM) in December 2008. Subsequently, U.S. Army Africa (USARAF) was designated as the Army Service component command (ASCC) for USAFRICOM in January 2012. The USAFRICOM commander directed USARAF to focus on four major tasks: - Supporting ongoing operations - Fulfilling Title 10, U.S. Code, responsibilities - Executing theater security cooperation missions - Deploying joint task force-capable headquarters USARAF, without assigned forces and the typical theater enablers, was presented a challenge in accomplishing its diverse missions. From its inception, USARAF has been dependent on other organizations, regionally aligned forces (RAF), and the global force management process to accomplish its mission. Operation United Assistance (OUA) provided a good laboratory in which to study the present theater army concept and to consider where it needs adjusting or modification in the future.

16-18 Multinational interoperability Reference Guide Handbook
PDF | Published 30 Jun 2016
The challenges and complexity of the future will require the Army to provide a broader range of capabilities to achieve strategic outcomes across a complex and diverse range of global missions. The Army Vision cites "integrate operations" as one of the unique roles performed by the Army, providing combatant commanders with foundational capabilities, to include headquarters capable of integrating joint, interagency, and multinational operations. In the future, the need for interoperability will extend to lower echelons of Army forces in order to effectively integrate smaller national contributions into multinational operations.

Musicians of Mars II
PDF | Published 12 Apr 2016
This handbook is a sequel to CALL Publication 90-06, The Musicians of Mars: A Story of Synchronization for the Company/Team Commander, June 1990. This short story was written to emphasize critical synchronization tasks, combat leadership principles, and factors for consideration, primarily for company/team commanders but also for leaders throughout tactical-level units. The importance of integrating and synchronizing available combat power, both lethal and nonlethal, in the decisive action environment against potential hybrid threats is critical to unit success on the battlefield. Musicians of Mars II is written from the perspectives of two company/team commanders and the task force commander in a deliberate defense scenario against a fictional hybrid threat, based on current worldwide potential threats. It explores successes and shortcomings in the planning, preparation and execution of the defense, providing considerations and points of emphasis for tactical leaders.

15-15 Unified Action Partners' Quick Reference Guide
PDF | Published 18 Sep 2015

This quick reference guide describes U.S. Army organizations, planning, and operations. Unified action partners (UAPs) are those military forces, of the private sector with whom U.S. Army forces plan, coordinate, synchronize, and integrate during the conduct of operations (Army Doctrine Reference Publication 3-0, Unified Land Operations).

UAPs include joint forces (activities in which elements of two or more U.S. military departments participate), multinational forces, and U.S Government (USG) agencies and departments. The Iraq and Afghanistan wars highlight the necessity for collaboration, cooperation, and synchronization among USG, NGOs, and private sector agencies to focus the elements of national power in achieving national strategic objectives. Our experience in these conflicts accentuates the importance of foreign governments, agencies, and militaries participating, in concert with the United States, to achieve common objectives. Meeting the challenges of complex environments, infused with fragile or failing nation states, non-state actors, pandemics, natural disasters, and limited resources, requires the concerted effort of all instruments of U.S. national power plus foreign governmental agencies, military forces, and civilian organizations.

15-12 The Brigade Engineer Battalion - A Leader’s Guide
PDF | Published 15 Jun 2015
Maneuver commanders rely on engineers to add breadth and depth to the overall understanding of the operational environment. The engineer perspective shares a common understanding of the operational environment, while adding a degree of focus on those aspects within an engineering background. The engineer, employing the common analytical framework and a unique technical background, identifies significant and relevant challenges and opportunities of potential impact to the combined arms operation.

15-11 Center for Army Lessons Learned Services Handbook
PDF | Published 15 Jun 2015
The Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) is an agent for change focused on the collection, analysis, dissemination, integration, and archiving of new concepts, best practices, and doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) solutions throughout the Army from the tactical through theater/strategic levels of war. This handbook should assist you in understanding CALL and how you and your unit can participate in, and profit from, the lessons learned program.

15-06 MDMP Lessons and Best Practices Handbook
PDF | Published 12 Mar 2015
Historically, a unit's success is directly related to the ability of the staff to execute the military decisionmaking process (MDMP). Given the increased complexity of today's operational environment and the vast array of mission command systems and processes, integration and synchronization of all activities associated with operations are increasingly difficult. Observations derived from deployed units, as well as from trainers at Combat Training Centers (CTCs) over the past decade, indicate a significant loss of unit ability to conduct a detailed MDMP. This lack of planning expertise results in de-synchronized operations, and could ultimately cost the lives of Soldiers. There are numerous key doctrinal manuals that address MDMP. This handbook is designed to consolidate much of this doctrine, combined with analysis of observations from recent deployments and CTC rotations, into a single source that is useful to junior leaders as they conduct the MDMP. More detailed study of the MDMP can be accomplished by studying the key doctrinal manuals listed in Chapter 13 of this handbook.

15-02 Leader's Guide to Team Building Handbook
PDF | Published 04 Feb 2015
The Leader's Guide to Team Building handbook provides lessons and best practices ("a way") to rapidly build and effectively employ cross-boundary teams that are highly competent both in making and executing decisions and in learning and adapting together. It helps the team gain common understanding of the situation and requirements and quickly reach a higher level of performance.

15-01 Command Deployment Discipline Handbook
PDF | Published 08 Dec 2014
The Command Deployment Discipline Program (CDDP) is a commander’s tool designed to enhance unit deployment readiness. This handbook is a combination of doctrinal and regulatory tasks that address Army standards, fundamentally focused on equipment movement and associated tasks from division to company level, to include installation tasks.

14-10 Commander's Guide to Support Operations Among Weaponized Displaced Persons, Refugees, and Evacuees
PDF | Published 27 Aug 2014
The use of chemical and biological weapons on the battlefields of history is not a new phenomenon. Although this practice is contrary to international treaties and customs, it has not precluded the use of these weapons by state and non-state actors against military, political, or civilian targets. Chemical and biological weapons use during the Iran–Iraq war in the 1980s and the use of chemical weapons in Syria in 2013 demonstrate that our collective security is threatened by actors willing to defy the international community. The threat of chemical and biological weapons use is increased as these are relatively inexpensive to produce and can be delivered by a variety of methods, making them an asymmetric threat of catastrophic potential. The psychological, health, and logistical implications of displaced persons fleeing a real or perceived chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and enhanced conventional weapons (CBRNE) environment will create complex mission command and support requirements requiring innovative and agile responses.

12-21 Commander's Guide to Supporting Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons Handbook
PDF | Published 01 Sep 2012
This CALL Handbook is a compilation of ILE student papers from the DLRO course "Refugees and Displaced Persons in the Operational Environment."

Pages

Newsletters

16-24: DATE at the JRTC, Volume XIII Newsletter
PDF | Published 23 Aug 2016
This newsletter looks at the manner, method, objectives, and results of collective training for warfare in the 21st century. It addresses ways to achieve unity of effort on a complex battlefield with numerous players, each with their own mission. Unity of effort is of paramount importance for success. It requires direct attention by the senior Army commander to move disparate organizations not under his control in the same direction to achieve complementary results to a common objective. A quote within this publication effectively describes this, "There was a shared vision of a solution to the challenges ahead, there was a common understanding of counterpart priorities and, most importantly, there was a trust and respect for one another that had grown."

CALL Insider Newsletter Mar-Apr 2016
PDF | Published 13 May 2016
Welcome to the March/April 2016 edition of the CALL Insider Newsletter. During the past two months, CALL analysts participated in multiple collections and training events including U.S. Army Central’s (USARCENT) Lucky Warrior 16 exercise and the Mission Command Training Program’s (MCTP) warfighter (WfX) 16-4 exercise collection. This edition highlights CALL’s support to the Joint Multinational Training Group-Ukraine (JMTG-U) and to the institutional Army in various educational settings. We are also pleased to feature the newly signed Army Regulation (AR) 11-33, which codifies the Army’s and commanders’ roles in the Army Lessons Learned Program (ALLP).

CALL Insider Newsletter Jan-Feb 2016
PDF | Published 30 Mar 2016
Welcome to the January/February 2016 edition of the CALL Insider Newsletter. CALL recently participated in several collections both at the Combat Training Centers (CTCs) and at 1ID and 4ID home-station training (HST) events. This edition highlights some of these collection efforts, the newest CALL publications, our work with the JMTG Ukraine, and our support to the 25th Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB) on lessons and best practices collected during the TRADOC assessment in the Ukraine.

16-08: Decisive Action Training Environment at the JRTC, Volume XI
PDF | Published 17 Feb 2016
The shift to a decisive action training environment (DATE) challenges the sustainment warfighting function (WfF) in a manner that few sustainers have seen before. “Fighting a moving fight instead of fighting the move” describes the challenge a DATE presents to the movement and maneuver and mission command WfFs. For the sustainment WfF, this challenge becomes “sustaining the moving fight while moving the sustainment capacity.” This newsletter examines that challenge in detail. We hope the information in this newsletter will provide you with the realization that DATE sustainment means the sustainer must be three mental steps ahead of the maneuver leader to successfully support a DATE operation.

CALL Insider Newsletter Nov-Dec 2015
PDF | Published 22 Jan 2016
Welcome to the November/December edition of the CALL Insider Newsletter. During the past two months, CALL analysts participated in several collections, conferences, and training events, some of which are highlighted in this edition. CALL continued to support the Joint Multinational Training Group-Ukraine with analysts and reach-back. You can read more on this topic, and find where to get the latest reports straight from Ukraine, in this newsletter.

CALL Insider Newsletter Sep - Oct 2015
PDF | Published 30 Nov 2015
Welcome to the Fall 2015 edition of the CALL Insider Newsletter. CALL continues to collaborate with U.S. Army forces, allies, and unified action partners to garner insights, lessons, and best practices in support of you the Warfighter.

CALL Insider 30th Anniversary Special Edition Newsletter
PDF | Published 02 Nov 2015

The new logo reflects CALL’s 30 years of service in support of the warfighter. CALL was established on 01 AUG 1985 by the 30th Chief of Staff of the Army, GEN John A. Wickham Jr., in recognition of the need to collect lessons from training and combat operations and to share them across the Army.

In the beginning years of our existence, CALL primarily collected and produced analog (paper) products related to home station training and unit rotations featuring force-on-force engagements at the maneuver Combat Training Centers. It was not long thereafter that we proved our mettle in combat operations, as CALL supported Operation Just Cause in 1989 and Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in the early 1990s. As technology evolved, so did CALL. In the early portion of the 2000 decade, CALL established public, NIPR, and SIPR websites, posting digital products, while continuing to push paper products to the field. We have continued to identify, collect, analyze, disseminate, and archive lessons and best practices from Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom in the past decade-plus and for numerous other operations, including peacekeeping efforts in Bosnia-Herzegovina and humanitarian assistance at home (i.e., Hurricane Katrina) and around the globe (i.e., Operation United Assistance to combat the Ebola virus).

Many things have changed in the past three decades, but one item has remained constant: It is this organization’s dedication to support troops, leaders, and units to help maintain global situational awareness in order to share knowledge and facilitate the Army’s and unified action partners’ adaptation to win wars — now, Force 2025, and beyond.

CALL Insider Newsletter July-Aug 2015
PDF | Published 28 Oct 2015

On 01 AUG 2015, CALL celebrated its 30th anniversary of providing lessons and best practices to the U.S. Army and our unified action partners.

CALL Insider Newsletter May-June 2015
PDF | Published 22 Jul 2015
CALL Insider Newsletter May-June 2015

15-09 Operation United Assistance - Setting the Theater: Creating Conditions for Success in West Africa
PDF | Published 01 Jun 2015
Not since World War II has the U.S. military been required to set the theater in Africa. But even more impressive than the empirical accomplishments are the resiliency demonstrated by the people of Liberia in taking the fight to the enemy and the hope which U.S. and international organizations brought to these wonderful people. This publication represents USARAF's efforts to share lessons from OUA. The common thread is a need to foster the capabilities resulting from innovative leadership and adaptive organizations.

CALL Insider March - April 2015
PDF | Published 20 May 2015
CALL continues to support you—the Warfighter—as we execute our Army’s mission. Together we move forward capitalizing on our best practices and learning from our lessons while deployed and at homestation. At CALL we continue to expand our focus from not only the tactical level of war but across the full spectrum. We have reached out to the ASCCs to see how we can best support them and YOU as your units deploy forward into their theaters of operation. Some of those highlights are captured in this newsletter as well updates from the training centers, recent publications that are available (hardcopy and digital), and our upcoming work on multinational interoperability.

CALL Insider December 2014
PDF | Published 15 Dec 2014
Greetings from the Army’s premier lessons learned center at Fort Leavenworth, Kan. CALL has published its Fiscal Year 2015 Collection Plan, which outlines the focus areas CALL will be looking at during the next fiscal year. In this edition of the CALL Newsletter, we would like to highlight our support to Operation United Assistance. CALL is developing push packages to assist units in operations or training exercises, and we have included a summary of this effort in this newsletter. We have also included a summary of our recent lessons learned seminar for the Georgian Armed Forces.

News from the Front

NFTF CJTF-OIR Future Operations Synchronization Board
PDF | Published 31 May 2016
Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR) conducts the Future Operations Synchronization Board (FOSB) weekly in order to develop the weight of effort for CJTF- OIR future operations. The function of the FOSB is to allow the CJTF-OIR CJ3 (Combined-Joint Operations Officer) to synchronize operations and support to operations throughout the Combined Joint Operations Area (CJOA) for the short-medium timeframe.

NFTF: Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercise (EDRE) 366th CBRN Company
PDF | Published 01 Apr 2016
The CENTCOM Theater area of responsibility (AOR) has one forward deployed Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Company. The 366th CBRN Company (Maneuver Support) is located at Camp Arifjan, Kuwait and assigned to ARCENT. The 366th mission is to provide CBRNE response capability to sea and air ports of deployment in the CENTCOM AOR; including contingency response to the Levant providing hazard intelligence, monitoring, and surveillance capability of CBRN agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals/Materials (TICs/TIMs) in support of CENTCOM’s Concept Plans (CONPLANs), and bilateral agreements with countries in the AOR. The Soldiers of the 366th CBRN used this Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercise (EDRE) to practice and refine their techniques for emergency deployment via air lift within the theater of operation.

NFTF: U.S./Kenyan Marine Operations and Maintenance Seminar
PDF | Published 02 Mar 2016
In January 2016 the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) invited members of the Kenyan Navy to Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti for a seminar focused on tactical operations and maintenance techniques. Hosting the Kenyan Navy was the Coastal Riverine Squadron 10 (FWD) and members of the Fusion Action Cell and D/403rd Civil Affairs. The event proved beneficial for both sides. Expertise and knowledge was exchanged with each side learning from each other and laid the ground work for future engagements.

NFTF OPERATION DEEP BLUE 74th Engineer Dive Detachment
PDF | Published 14 Jan 2016
The United States (U.S.) Army recognizes that controlling inland waterways and ports is vitally important in the contemporary military environment. For this reason, the U.S. Army established Engineer Dive units during World War II. Since then, U.S. Army Engineer Divers have served in every major U.S. conflict and fulfilled the role of providing underwater reconnaissance, demolition, and salvage for the U.S. Army. The 74th Engineer Dive Detachment is currently deployed to Camp PATRIOT, Kuwait in support of U.S. Army Central Command (USARCENT) under the Brigade Special Troops Battalion (BTSB), as part of Area Support Group (ASG) Kuwait. The two main focuses of the 74th Engineer Dive Detachment are Anti-terrorism Force Protection (ATFP) and Vessel Husbandry. ATFP involves diving to clear vessel berthing slots of obstacles, obstructions, and potential threats. Vessel husbandry includes conducting maintenance and repairs to vessels from all the services.

NFTF 185th Theater Aviation Brigade (TAB) Search and Rescue Exercise (SAREX): Leveraging All Assets to Benefit Training
PDF | Published 14 Jan 2016
The Army’s experience in littoral areas with over the water operations in continues to grow as part of the Army’s goal to build its expeditionary capabilities. The 185th Theater Aviation Brigade (TAB) deployed to Camp BUEHRING, Kuwait in support of Operation SPARTAN SHIELD. Given the operational environment (OE) of the 185th TAB, they saw a need to develop and refine the techniques for Personnel Recovery (PR) in a maritime scenario. The TAB needed a means to practice these techniques as they developed them. They also needed an opportunity to learn and train on the survival equipment used in open water survival. The 185th TAB had conducted numerous land PR exercises in the past, and their aircrews trained extensively for ditching into a body of water. However, the brigade had not previously conducted a PR exercise in an open “blue water” environment. This SAREX was developed to test the TAB ability to conduct PR with aircrews ditching in the ocean, both with US forces and with coalition (Kuwait) forces in support.

Other Products

Bulletin 16-26: Permanent Executive Secretariat Conference of American Armies Volume I: A Cycle Guide
PDF | Published 31 Aug 2016
This bulletin contains valuable information to aid leaders, from all Conference of American Armies (CAA) member nations, in their knowledge on the goals, processes, and procedures as a contributing army, as well as, to better prepare them to assume the critical role of leading the CAA Permanent Executive Secretariat (PESCAA) in the future.

16-20 U.S. Army Medical Contingent to Task Force Forager
PDF | Published 19 Jul 2016
Global health engagements conducted in the Pacific theater by a U.S. Army medical task force are an example of the U.S. Army's continuous commitment and resolve to the security and stability of the Indonesia-Asia-Pacific region. The U.S. Army invested significantly in the rebalance to the Pacific, and Army medicine did its part with collaboration and participation in Pacific Partnership 2015 (PP15), a U.S. Navy-led multinational humanitarian assistance and disaster relief preparedness mission, conducted May through August 2015.

16-19 CJTF - Horn of Africa: From Crisis Action to Campaigning Special Study
PDF | Published 08 Jul 2016
CJTF-HOA was established at Camp Lejeune, NC, in October 2002 in response to the September 11 attacks. The organization was formed around the 2nd Marine Division Headquarters, with the intent of identifying and destroying terror cells and violent extremist organizations in the region. This special study examines a significant shift in CJTFHOA’s focus: the transition from a short-term crisis, action-focused organization to a long-term campaigning headquarters. The shift is the result of a tremendous amount of blood, sweat, and tears by the men and women of CJTF-HOA in coordination with the USAFRICOM staff, the Service components, and our regional embassies.

Home Station Training Dec 2015 – May 2016 Initial Impressions Report
PDF | Published 07 Jul 2016
This report provides a summary of the observations from three Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) collection events concerning Home Station Training (HST) from December 2015 - February 2016. The collection team interviewed a total of over 250 Soldiers and Leaders from one Corps Headquarters, two Division Headquarters, three Brigade Combat Teams, and seventeen Battalions/Squadrons. This collection report includes analysis from the I CORPS Stryker Assessment dated January 2016. This report has been sanitized to remove unit identification.

Civilian Casualty (CIVCAS) Prevention GTA 90-01-039
PDF | Published 24 May 2016
GTA 90-01-039, CIVCAS Prevention smartcard provides lessons, best practices, and consequence management steps to mitigate civilian loss of life and property (collateral damage) during the conduct of military operations. The May 2016 supersedes the previous version, entitled "Afghanistan Civilian Casualty Prevention," May 2012.

16-09: Security Cooperation Lessons and Best Practices Bulletin
PDF | Published 09 Mar 2016
The routine military and interagency security cooperation (SC) activities the U.S. Army performs to deter potential adversaries and solidify our relationships with allies and partners are often described as shaping activities. Shaping the security environment is a cost-effective way to ensure peace and stability and prevent conflict. Our relationships with international partners are essential to protecting the national security interests of the United States and our allies. By helping to build the capacity and interoperability of our partners, the Army contributes to a more secure world.

16-10: ARCENT Transition to Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve
PDF | Published 09 Mar 2016

In June 2014, CENTCOM instructed the US Army Central Headquarters to form the core of a Joint Forces Land Component Command (JFLCC), and with the addition of coalition forces, to a Coalition Forces Land Component Command (CFLCC) to conduct limited operation against Daesh (aka ISIL). As the operations against Daesh required full joint integration, CENTCOM ordered the transition of the CFLCC a CJTF, eventually becoming the Combined Joint Task Force-Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR).

Soon after they handed over the CJTF responsibilities, ARCENT contacted the Mission Command Center of Excellence (MC CoE) with a request for a Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) collection team to document ARCENT Headquarters’ experience as they worked through the ASCC-CFLCC-CJTF transition, concluding with their operating as a CJTF. This Initial Impressions Report (IIR) is the collection of lessons, best practices, and insights based on the ARCENT Commander and his staff in transitioning from an ASCC to a CJTF.

16-05: 101st Airborne Division Operation United Assistance IIR
PDF | Published 08 Dec 2015
This report provides a summary of insights, lessons, and best practices collected from the Commander and staff of the 101st Air Assault Division and the staff of the 101st Sustainment Brigade during the Umbrella Week collection following their return from Operation United Assistance (OUA). The division transitioned to JFC-OUA and led a five-month deployment to Liberia in support of the U.S. Agency for International Development-led mission to fight the spread of the Ebola virus in western Africa.

16-01 USACE Overseas Contingency Operations Playbook
PDF | Published 20 Oct 2015

The United States Corps of Engineers (USACE) Overseas Contingency Operations Playbook provides lessons learned from more than 10 years serving in Iraq and Afghanistan. The playbook's purpose is to capture leaders' significant experiences, observations, issues and perceptions; to share and institutionalize these insights within USACE, the Engineer Regiment, and the Department of the Army to provide a tool for operating effectively in future contingency operations.

15-16 Operation United Assistance Report for Follow-On Forces
PDF | Published 24 Sep 2015

Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations are not new to the Army and the Department of Defense (DOD). We gained experience from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, President Barack Obama announced Operation United Assistance in September 2014, allowing the military to support the United States Agency for International Development. This was the largest role the military had assumed in combating the spread of a disease or virus. The fight against Ebola was on.

The DOD made critical contributions to the fight against the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. Chief among these was bringing expertise in mission command, logistics, and engineering to assist in quickly getting health workers and medical supplies into West Africa. This Center for Army Lessons Learned bulletin is the result of many interviews and data collection activities with the U.S. Army Africa (USARAF) staff. It is not meant to be totally comprehensive, but rather to serve as a quick and easy-to-read guide for follow-on units focusing on selected key areas.

15-14 Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) Observation Report
PDF | Published 11 Aug 2015
At the request of the Commander, CJTF Horn of Africa (HOA), the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) planned and conducted a collection with key members of the CJTF staff from 31 Oct 14 to 7 Nov 14. This report focuses on the following areas and reflects the lessons and best practices in the CJTF at the time of collection: Mission Command, CJTF Sourcing and Manning, CJTF-HOA Staff Reorganization, Fusion Action Cells (FAC), Information Sharing with Partner Nations, Foreign Liaison Officers, Relationships and Enabling United Action Partners, SOF and GPF Interdependence, Staff Judge Advocate, Regionally Aligned Force (RAF), Counter IED, East African Response Force (EARF), and Civil Affairs