Col. Edmund J. Lilly Jr. P.O.W Papers

Notebook #18: Crazy One (a true story); Excerpt from "Birth of England, etc."; Outline of Ancient History.


by Col. Kent-Hughes (Australian)

Mi Tien- "The Crazy One" – was playing happily with five of his brothers & sisters in the room behind the shop; the room which served as living room, dining room, kitchen and nursery. In the far corner his mother was feeding the seventh & last arrived member of this family – a baby sister two months old. Upstairs, his father was smoking and conversing with a friend who lived a few doors away. Mi Tien was not his family name, but a nick-name which this microscopic scrap of humanity had al- ready earned for himself by his magnetic temperament and unsuppressable energy. Mi Tien wanted to go outside to play in the street. He was 8 years old & would normally have been at school. Just because the school had been closed a week previously, because of the war his parents said, Mi Tien saw no reason why he should not play in the glorious sunshine. And what was this war anyway? This strange reason why father had shut up shop, why he & his brothers & sisters were not allowed outside, why there had been no exciting processions & fireworks to celebrate the Chinese New Year (1942) in Singapore.

There were many soldiers & military vehicles in the city, but there were always soldiers in Singapore. They had been firing off a lot of guns, closer to Mi Tien’s home than usual, when they wanted to play at being soldiers. Only the previous evening they had been careless in letting a shell explode in the middle of the street just as Mi Tien was going to sleep. The noise had waken up Ching Lien (Green Lotus) the baby & frightened her so that she cried for some time. But Mi Tien had been thrilled. The noise was so much louder than any Chinese cracker he had ever heard & the front windows had all been broken. As the night was hot this let in much more fresh air. But such an ex- citing event was not likely to happen again as soldiers were not generally so careless. Why SHOULD he & his brothers & sisters have to stop indoors this lovely morning just because the soldiers still wanted to play at being soldiers?

Mi Tien stood up to take the singing class. They were playing at school & he was teacher. Hardly had he scrambled to his feet when there was a sound of whistling. He could hardly believe his ears. The note of teacher’s tuning fork seemed to get louder & LOUDER & LOUDER …oh so quickly.

Base Hqs. A.I.F. were located in the Kit store in Waterloo Road, Singapore. Previous Hqs. had been vacated on 11 Feb 1942, owing to bombing which had wrecked the buildings. On the morning of Black Friday, the 13th Feb., a squadron of bombing planes was heard overhead. The sentry at the entrance gate gave the warning "Take cover" whistle. A full complement of bombs--pattern bombing— fell from an unclouded sky into a densely populated area of guiltless humanity. The two-storied houses just opposite the kit store were amongst those hit, & collapsed in a heap of dust & rubble. One minute the terrace was complete; the next a great yawning gap had appeared in the frontage.

An Australian officer & several soldiers rushed across to see if they could help survivors. There was a 10 ft. deep crater, its sides lined with sticky mud & brick dust. In the twinkling of an eye, a scene of domestic bliss had been changed into a crumb- ling heap of death, ruin & despair.

On the farther lip of the crater lay two dead Chinamen. On the left of the crater was a small black disc glistening in the dust through which the sunlight struggled, & beside it protruded a child’s bare arm. The officer crossed over to the spot, misquoting to himself the Frenchman’s remark— "C’est terrible, ce n’est pas la guerre." He found that the little black disc was in reality the top of a Chinese child’s head. The child was buried up to the neck in debris & pinned down by a beam of wood. There was a cut in the upper lip & blood oozed & congealed on the dirt-bespattered chin & was lost in the dust like the waters of an inland Australian River.

Thinking the child dead, the officer called for help to lift the beam off the poor little body.

Mi Tien heard voices far, far away. They came closer. Was he dreaming? No, he was awake. The voices came closer still, "Where am I?" his mind asked as he returned to full consciousness. But there seemed to be no answer except that   he was unable to move owing to a very heavy weight across his side. It hurt him. The voices were very close. The weight was growing less. Mi Tien’s fragile frame, finally released, became a bundle of energy. Fully conscious, he remembered that he had been playing with his brothers & sisters. What had happened? Where were they? Where had the house gone?

He shook his head. He scrambled to his feet, his black eyes blazing with determination. One quick glance he bestowed on the yawning crater & his dead father. What unseen voice told him that his father was dead? – but one swift survey seemed to suffice -- to tell him that everything he wanted to know.

Shaking himself like a terrier, he began to dig furiously with his hands at the hole from which he himself had been dug out. The soldiers bending down could head children’s voices replying to the spate of words which burst from Mi Tien’s lips. In his ignorance & eagerness Mi Tien was blocking the only air hole for those trapped below. While one soldier restrained his misguided enthusiasm with a friendly hand, others swiftly & skillfully cleared a way of escape. Eventually five small children & Mi Tien’s mother were rescued from the tomb which only a quarter of an hour earlier had been their happy home.  Unfortunately, the petals of the little "Green Lotus" had been crushed beyond recovery.  The baby & two other children were dead; but the remainder, though dazed, were practically unhurt.  When the soldiers left, Mi Tien, rechristened by them The Mighty Atom, was seen coolly & calmly attending to the wants of his family to the best of his small ability.

Some months later the Australian officer, discussing war experiences with his fellow Prisoners of War, related the story of Mi Tien & concluded with the following remarks: --

"In war, & especially in total war, not all the heroes known or unknown are in the fighting line or forward areas. That little Chinese boy could not have known anything of war or what it meant, or of the fierce racial hatreds his elders, but not his betters, had aroused. The sky was clear, the sun was shining. He was playing merrily with his brothers & sisters. Then suddenly a terrifying explosion blots out the sun, wrecks his home, kills half his playmates. But it fails to quench his courage, his indomitable fortitude. With what glowing pride & glistening eyes must his ancestral "Kami" have gazed upon that scene.

"As for me, I felt very humble in the presence of that minute bundle of bravery. He taught me a lesson & has left me a memory, that I shall never forget. Many a time in the future shall I raise my hat in salute to that tiny Chinese hero, owner of that glistening disc of jet black hair.

Excerpt from "The Birth of England & The English, and a Comparison of Modern Anglo-Saxons with Modern Germans." Ching-chiatun, Manchankuo, Jan. ’45. – by Brigadier I. Simson (B)


Few people realize the preponderance of England in the industrial, commercial, financial, & sea-faring power of modern Britain. National power, other things being equal. depends directly on the population of a country’s & not on its size on the map which many people loosely assume. England & Wales represent 85% of the population of Gt. Britain & N. Ireland; England alone has a population 8 times that of Scotland the next largest country of the Union. London has a population nearly double that of all Scotland; & it is about 20% of the whole of Gt. Britain & N. Ireland. This enormous concentration of population, industry & the largest sea transport concentration in the world has vitally affected the rail & road development of the country; & London being so near the continent this has proved a source of weakness in the first & second world wars, necessitating great development of ports on the west coast of England & Scotland in order to feed the country in reasonable safety from air attack.


The tables "A", "B", & "C", opposite compare Britain & other countries with Germany & are worth careful study. The U.S.A. will be dealt with later, as Germany’s                        

  COUNTRY AREA IN SQ. MI. POPULATION Total POPULATION Density per Sq. Mi. Increase Retail (1914 Figures 1934 Prices = 100) 1937
England & Wales 58,343 41,031,000 706    
Scotland 30,410 4,842,554 163    
N. Ireland 5,244 1,279,000 244    
Total (Gt. Britain & N. Ireland 93,997 47,152,554 505 41 60
Australia   6,800,000   19 28
New Zealand   1,600,000      
Canada   11,200,000   22 31
S. Africa   9,600,000      
Germany (1939) 226,435 78,526,000 347 22 26
Italy 131,000 45,000,000 343 283 (Rome) 363
France 213,000 42,000,000 197 411 (Paris) 530
Spain 196,700 24,583,000 120    
Hungary 56,000 12,500,000 221    
Greece 50,000 7,000,000 140    
Roumainia 84,000 12,000,000 143    
Bulgaria 43,000 7,000,000 163    
Holland 13,514 8,640,000 618    
Belgium 11,750 8,250,000 702 554 656
Denmark 16,580 3,700,000 237 66 83
Sweden 173,345 6,500,000 35 55 65
Jugo Slavia 96,000 4,730,000 49    

quarrel in both world wars was with European countries and not U.S.A. in the first instance. The difference in character between modern Anglo-Saxon nationalities all over the world, & the modern Teuton have been shortly discussed already. xx The tables on (preceding page) dispose of many German contentions for going to war in this 20th Century. War is the first German solution for everything. They will never discuss a question & compromise, i.e. "live & let live," which is the solution preferred by the Anglo-Saxon all over the world, including U.S.A.; war & the use of force is their very last solution.

The Germans cannot feed themselves from food produced entirely within their own frontiers. So for years they have wanted to possess as part of Germany the wheatfields of Hungary, Ukraine, etc. with total disregard of the local populations who cannot speak German & never have been German. But in their inability to feed themselves they are no worse off than say England, Belgium, or Holland. In fact, being an island, England’s danger from starvation in war is probably the greater; yet this is no sound reason for seizing a more fortunate neighbor’s territory. Modern industry & transport require oil. Except for Russia & Roumania, no European countries possess oil, including England. But Germany makes this a "Casus belli" to incorporate such such areas forcibly in the German Reich & to over- run such areas without a thought other than to make the local population’s slaves to produce oil; as those in wheat areas would become slaves to produce food. This is the avowed German Gov’t. policy in their proposals before going to war, as to what they were going to do with certain conquered countries, such as South Russia, France, England. This policy has been written down & taught in the hundreds of leadership schools, where the future leaders of Germany are being trained for the national policy in all walks of life! Germany again has repeatedly asserted that she was being "encircled" & required "living space" (Lebensraum). Encircled by whom was never stated; & she could not be frightened of the small countries adjoining her frontiers. There are no big ones. As regards living space, the tables on page 7 show that the density of population of Germany (347 per sq. mi) is the same as that of Italy (343), under half that of England & Wales, Belgium, Holland… none of whom had practical cause for grumble. This excuse for war also falls to the ground. Again, as regards the cost of living, the average retail prices covering food, rent, clothing, fuel & light are given on page 7, & the German figures for 1934 & 1937 are appreciably less than those of all other countries – including the U.S.A. which were 37 & 47, respectively. Although the German Govt. policy was avowedly in favor of "guns not butter" during this period, the German public had less cause for grumble on the increase of retail prices than the public of almost every other nation, belligerent or neutral in 1914-18. The Germans are an extremely industrious hard working nation. For their industrial products the world’s markets were open to them as for any other nation & by 1930 they were making great headway. There was no commercial war against them, & if they had continued, their efforts by peace would have brought them more than their efforts by war.

But once again under Hitler they deliberately chose war as their instrument just as they have always done for the last 1500 years since the Goths & Visigoths destroyed the Roman Empire & put nothing in its place – just destruction, no subsequent re- construction of the destroyed areas. The British have for a long time now realized this German policy of war for war’s sake, & ill treatment & slavery of the overrun populations, exemplified by their 1904 treatment of the Hereros in S..W. Africa, of Poland about 1795 & 1939, & of Austria 1866 & 1939, & other cases. But rather than quote British writers, it is worth quoting the opinions of Mr. James W. Gerard, U.S.A. Ambassador to the German Imperial Court from 1913 to 1917, since Mr. Gerard represents another Anglo-Saxon "foundation-nation" at a sufficient distance to get proper perspective. Mr. Gerard started predisposed towards Germany, determined to assist his President in preventing war. In his book "My Four Years in Germany" he touches on fundamental truths as true of 1939 as of 1914. As a result of 1914-18 they seemed to have learned nothing at all. In 1939, the Germans committed the same faults – exaggerated if anything – until finally the whole world united against them. They even lost the sympathy of some of their allies, e.g. Italy & Bulgaria; as of Turkey in 1918. Mr. Gerard points out that Frederick the Great, the prototype of Germany’s more modern rulers, died only in 1786. His will reads "I bequeath to Frederick William the Kingdom of Prussia, the provinces, towns, palaces, forts… lands mine by inheritance or right of conquest…" ..The population of provinces, towns etc. are bequeathed as if they were horses!

In 1780, Frederick the Great donated money to Greifenberg (Silesia), a town which had been burnt down. In his reply of thanks, the spokesman says "the gratitude of such dust as we, is of no moment or value to you…"

Serfdom was not abolished in the Grand Duchy of Mecklen- berg till 1819. (What can only be called slavery was introduced with torture in 1933 for Germans like Pastor Niemoller --a famous submarine commander of 1914-18 – who could not agree with his Government’s actions; while enemy nationals such as Poles & Czecko-Slovaks were treated far worse than slaves from 1939.) Mr. Gerard contrasts these words & this outlook   with the approximately contemporary remarks of Washington in U.S.A., & we might add Pitt in Britain. The German is still very far from being free. He is still the complete slave of the Prussian autocracy. In England 800 years ago, the Englishman forced a King to sign the Magna Charta; & 300 years ago beheaded another King who overstressed his Divine Right theories. Germany certainly is several hundred years behind the Anglo-Saxon nations in ideas of freedom, & the rights of the ordinary man. Mr. Gerard, writing in 1917, concludes thus: --

"German autocracy deceives a great people, poisons their mind from generation to generation, preaching the virtue and necessity of war. Until this autocracy is wiped out and made powerless, there can be no peace on earth."

These are strong words by a strong man, originally predisposed towards Germany but forced to this opinion after 4 years in that country. As such they probably carry more weight than words of British men who know Germany even better. And once more we are back to the mental gulf that separates the modern Germany from the modern Anglo-Saxon nations. What has caused it? Only 1500-2000 years ago, they formed the same branch of the same tree of humanity. So far as I know this has never been explained. There are considerable gaps in the history of the area now called Germany & its neighboring areas – particular- ly East & Southeast. Two points stand out. It is the Prussians of North & N.E. Germany who have really earned Germany her unenviable reputation for ruthlessness, insolence & overriding bearing with other peoples including other Germans such as Saxons, Bavarians, Badens etc.. One modern expert on Germany is of opinion that the Prussian has much recent Asiatic blood in him from one of the later invasions from the East, but it is not known if this is, or can be, confirmed historically. What makes Germany as dangerous for the future peace of Europe & of the World is the fact that the easier going central & Southern Germans seem tacitly to accept & fight for the ideas of the Prussian. At heart the German is mentally still barbaric; a barbarian who is all the more dangerous because of his numbers & organizing, industrial & scientific abilities which are invariably developed to a militaristic end – to make his "mailed fist" still more powerful. From one of the leading artistic nations in music, poetry –German output of art has fallen extremely low in the last half century. It is typical that Wagner’s operas are the most popular – particularly the Ring series dealing with the Sword. In Germany "Might is Right" & one wonders when – if ever – the non- Prussian Germans will break away from the policy of war to settle disputes. The Prussian propaganda is clever in whipping up the whole nation to believe in encirclement & the aggressive designs of Russia, France, Britain. The bombing of Germany in the Second World War, & the entry of the United States, who was not immediately though ultimately – concerned, may at last bring about the breakaway of South Germany from Prussian dominance. Russia has suffered so severely from Prussianism that she also is likely to make every effort to stop the Prussian (as opposed to the German) danger, once & for all. If Prussia is adequately dealt with, the aggressiveness of Germany seems likely to disappear & her thought & ideals come into line with that of other nations. The South Germans must be softer people than the modern Anglo-Saxon nations, who would never allow them- selves to be driven & cajoled against their better judgment. The result is partially achieved by concealment or distortion of vital facts – lying in fact – so that from the start public opinion is warped to the end in view of the Government.


On Anglo-Saxon foundations, the youngest & most powerful of democracies has developed quickly in the last century or so, until it is now a real world force. In numbers, industrial output, & natural wealth of the country, the United States greatly exceeds any other Anglo-Saxon country. In fact in the world only Russia is comparable. The 1930 census showed the population to be:

Whites 111,287,000  Chinese 75,000
 Negroes 11,891,000  Japanese 111,000
Amer. Indians 332,397 Grand Total 124,000,000 approx.

Of the "whites", far the majority must have descended from emigrants originally from England, Scotland, Ireland, & Wales; though there has been a large influx from every European country subsequently. Of these 111,287,000 whites, 36% or nearly 40,000,000 are foreign-born or American-born children of foreign countries, the more important of which are:

Irish Free State 3,086,000  N. Ireland 700,000
England 2,522,000  Scotland 900,000
Australian 955,000  British Canadian 2,231,000
    Total "British"= 10,394,000, mainly Anglo-Saxon in all probability, even if resident outside Britain.  Then:
Germany 6,873,000 French Canada 1,106,000
Italy 4,547,000 Norway 1,100,000
Poland 3,342,000 Hungary 591,000
Russia 2,670,000 Denmark 529,000
 Sweden 1,563,000  France 472,000
 Czecho_Slovakia 1,382,000 Yugo-Slavia 469,000
 Mexico 1,222,000 Spanish 110,000

 Dutch, Swiss, Finns, Greeks & Roumanians varied between 410,000 & 293,000 each.

 From these figures it would appear to be a reasonable inference that immigration into the United States is still predominantly "Anglo-Saxon"; with Germany an easy second. The actual immigration figures by nationalities are not available. Much of this immigration resulted presumably from the unsettled state of Europe say from 1910 to 1930; & must have been composed largely of peoples who would not surrender their freedom to the dictates of their own unsettled countries. To this extent the love of freedom (in its widest sense) of the American will have been further strengthened. The same phenomenon will certainly have repeated itself in the years prior to, during, & after the Second World War; but the quota from each country that the U.S. will later accept as American citizens, may prove an awkward problem – both in quantity & quality. The United States nowadays is in fact facing the same problem that Britain has had to face in the last few centuries in accepting & absorbing refugees from France, Germany, Italy … as the result of earlier wars & revolutions. With the ease of modern transport, the scale is far bigger – but the U.S. are also bigger than Britain. The effect on the U.S., must also be the same as it was on Britain. It not only will bring new blood, but widen the American field in human understanding & human problems all over the world. To this extent American "Isolationism" must shrink. Already in the U.S. there is a marked tendency to give up isolation & to come forth & help to solve the complicated human problems which exist in various parts of the world. This is all to the good. At first this may have to take the form of force or policing; & as a deterrent to aggressive war the massive weight of the States will certainly be very great in future. But the main value of the U.S. will be in the formation of something corresponding to the "League of Nations" as a means of settling disputes & frontiers in future by discussion & decision at the Council Table instead of by war. This "League of Nations" was suggested by Britain after the Napoleonic wars, in 1815. But it was too far in advance of its time then to be accepted by European nations all suspicions of each other. In 1919, such a League was actually formed mainly due to the efforts of the U.S. President. It was enthusiastically received as an idea by the nations of Europe, largely because the idea came from outside Europe. If it had come from Britain it would not have been so gladly received – although a draft Covenant much on President Wilson’s lines existed in London as early as 1910 if not before. But this League of Nations collapsed soon, largely because the American Senate & people refused to endorse their President’s work. When the League of Nations idea emerges for the third time if under some other name, the U.S. nation is likely to be one of its godfathers. And now that American "isolation" is dying the U.S. is likely to become & remain a member; to the very great advantage of the whole world, for in European affairs at any rate the U.S. has no obvious axe to grind, is really "neutral" & can thus carry her weight & ideals for far further than any European power. Europe knows the high ideals of the U.S. & her disinterestedness owing to geographical distance & safety which Britain no longer possesses owing to the development of air power.

In any future League of Nations, voting is likely to be on a basis proportional to population. Here the first important step is to develop agreement on policy all over the world, between the various English speaking countries. If this can be achieved, the United States & the white populations of the British Empire together even outnumber the Russian Empire of 1939. If Russia can be brought into full cooperation, the future looks rosy. There seems to be no reason why the U.S., Britain & the U.S.S.R. should not cooperate fully. So far as one can foresee, the interests & needs should not clash seriously for many years; & modern communism is trying undoubtedly to reach the same goal as the Democracies though by another road. The different Soviet route has probably largely been forced upon them by fear of Germany. If that fear is removed not only the goal, but the road to it, may be much the same as that in use by the U.S. & Britain.

Thus the steps for world peace & progress would appear mainly to be: -

(a) Complete accord between U.S. & Britain
(b) formation of what will be a new League of Nations, or International Council table, for airing grievances & relieving the pressure on nations before they resort to war.
(c) complete accord between U.S., Britain, & Russia, to enforce if necessary decisions of the League of Nations against those who refuse to accept them without fighting. Those nations who do not provide fighting forces could perhaps subscribe financially on an agreed scale.
(d) a common second language for all nations.

Of those (a) & (c) will probably prove of the greatest, but not insurmountable, difficulty. Both involve "give & take" by all concerned, & "giving" is what will achieve success. "Taking" or "holding" everything that each nation already has, is certain to cause failure of the main object. It is to be hoped that the three nations concerned will prove big enough to "come together" in fact & not only in name, & really to trust each other. Being least concerned in Europe & Asia, the initiative can best come from the U.S. And if some such policy develops successfully, the fame of those early Anglo-Saxon forefathers of ours will have been consummated by their successors developing internationally rather than nationally. And this is essential for the peace of the world. The main objection to concord with Russia is likely to be the issue between capital & (modified) communism. But here again, judging by Soviet results since 1928, the Capitalist countries can learn a good deal from the Soviet Union in for example the few (shareholders) profiting at the expense of the many (the public generally), & the state control of essential industries at the expense of non-essential industries. This last point spells security & happiness of the public in the long run. In fact it has saved Russia, no more no less from German aggression in 1941.

Big events for the future of mankind are pending after the cessation of the Second World War. It will be interesting to see if the Anglo-Saxon nations, who have already achieved so much, will be big enough to achieve peace & security for all nations. To paraphrase the words again of Mr. Gerard & apply them in another sense (to that of war when he used them in 1917). The Democracies have many thinkers, writers, speakers. They now require doers, organizers of realistic action. Will the need throw up such men? & will the public accept their ideas & leave them long enough in power to lay the foundation’s truly? Only time can show the soundness of any new building. -----



Principle Races and Peoples

Black or Negro Races

Yellow or Mongolian Races :

White or Caucasian Races




Important Ancient Dates (approximate)

BC    50,000 Neanderthal Man
         10,000 New Stone Age
           5,000 Egyptian and Sumerian Culture
           4,000 First Dynasty in Egypt, Cretan culture
           3,000 Building of the pyramids
           2,200 Shepherd Kings in Egypt, Early Babylonian Empire
           1,200 Assyrian Empire
              950 Kingdom of Soloman
              625 Chaldean Empire
              538 Persian Empire

 BC     776 Olympic Games first recorded
           490 Persian War – Battle of Marathon
           480 Xerxes invasion – Battles of Thermopylae & Salamis
           461-429 "Golden Age" of Pericles
           431-404 Peloponnesian War (Athens vs. Sparta)
           404 Fall of Athens
           387 Peace of Autolcides (Granting Persia control over Greek Cities)
           371 Thebes Supreme
           338 Philip of Macedon defeats Greeks (Chaeronea)
           338-331 Alexander defeats Persians and Eastern countries
           328 Death of Alexander – End of Greece’s Glory


BC     753  Foundation of Rome
          510  Kings driven out
          494  Tribunes of the People aptd. (great victory for Plebes)
          390  Rome sacked by Gauls
          338  Latin League broken up (Rome became supreme)
          287  "Lex Hortensia" – (Equal rights to Patricians & Plebes)
 264 - 241 First Punic War (with Carthage – see Battle "Mylae" – 260)
 218 –202  Second " " (Hannibal invades Italy)
          216  Battle of Canae (Defeat of Romans by Hannibal)
          202  Battle of Zama ( " " Hannibal by Scipio)
 149 - 146  Third Punic War (Destruction of Carthage by Scipio the Younger)
          138  Reforms of Tiberius Gracchus (and his brother Gaius)
            58  Caesar in Gaul
    55 - 54  Caesar invades Britain
            49   "        enters Rome with his army
            48  Battle of Pharsalus (Pompey defeated by Caesar)
            44  Caesar’s death (see "Julius Caesar" – Shakespeare)
            42  Battle of Philippi (Octavius & Anthony vs Brutus & Cassius)
            31  Battle of Actium (Octavius defeats Anthony & Cleopatra)
31BC – 14AD Augustus Caesar (Octavius = "The Golden Age of Rome)

AD         64 Persecution of Christians begins (by Nero)
              98 Trajan (one of Five Good Emperors 96-180)
            161 Marcus Aurelius (Empire Builder & Philosopher)
            330 Founding of Constantinople (by Constantine – 1st Christtian Emperor)
            364 Division of the Empire (West – Rome; East – Constantinople)
            378 Battle of Adrianople
            410 Goths sack Rome – Alaric
            451 Battle of Chalons (Huns defeated) [ Supremacy of whites in Europe defending Istanbul]
            476 End of Western Empire Justinian Emperor (Belisarius)
            732 Battle of Tours (Charles Martel defeats Arabs & Europe remains Christain)
            800 Charlemagne – Emperor
            843 Treaty of Verdun (beginning of Modern European nations)

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