Definition/Scope: (NCTC) Lashkar e-Tayyiba, LT, also known as Army of the Righteous, is one of the largest and most proficient of the Kashmiri-focused militant groups. LT formed in the early 1990s as the military wing of Markaz-ud-Dawa-wal-Irshad, a Pakistan-based Islamic fundamentalist missionary organization founded in the 1980s to oppose the Soviets in Afghanistan. Since 1993, LT has conducted numerous attacks against Indian troops and civilian targets in the disputed Jammu and Kashmir province, as well as several high-profile attacks inside India itself, and concern over new LT attacks in India remains high. The United States and United Nations have designated LT an international terrorist organization. The Pakistani Government banned the LT and froze its assets in 2002. In 2008 the US Treasury Department imposed sanctions on four senior LT leaders. The Indian Government implicated LT for the 26–29 November 2008 attacks in Mumbai, in which gunmen using automatic weapons and grenades attacked several sites, killing over 160 people. Pakistani authorities have detained and intend to prosecute several LT leaders for the Mumbai attacks. India also implicated the group for other high-profile attacks, including the 11 July 2006 attack on multiple Mumbai commuter trains that killed over 180 people and the December 2001 armed assault on the Indian Parliament building that left 12 dead. LT’s actual size is unknown, but the group probably has several thousand members, predominantly Pakistani nationals seeking a united Kashmir under Pakistani rule. LT members have been arrested in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the group also recruits internationally, as evidenced by the indictment of 11 LT terrorists in Virginia in 2003. LT maintains facilities in Pakistan, including training camps, schools, and medical clinics. In March 2002, senior al-Qa‘ida lieutenant Abu Zubaydah was captured at an LT safe house in Faisalabad, suggesting that some LT members may assist al-Qa‘ida. LT coordinates its charitable activities through its front organization, Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JUD), which spearheaded humanitarian relief to the victims of the October 2005 earthquake in Kashmir. JUD activities, however, have been limited since December 2008 by the UN’s designation of the group as an alias for LT. According to the Indian Government, LT/JUD is continuing to provide humanitarian aid—most recently to internally displaced persons in Pakistan—through the charitable organization Falah-i-Insaniyat Foundation. LT/JUD and its leader, Hafiz Saeed, continue to advocate armed jihad, and spread virulent rhetoric condemning the United States, India, Israel, and other perceived enemies. They also have many alisas such as Al Mansooreen, AKA Al Mansoorian, AKA Army of the Pure, AKA Army of the Pure and Righteous, AKA Army of the Righteous, AKA Jamaat ud-Dawa and Al Monsooreen, AKA Lashkar e-Toiba, AKA Lashkar-i-Taiba, AKA Paasban-e-Ahle-Hadis, AKA Paasban-e-Kashmir, AKA Paasban-i-Ahle-Hadith, AKA Pasban-e-Ahle-Hadith, and AKA Pasban-e-Kashmir.