Definition/Scope: The Muslim Brotherhood (MB) was founded in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna, a 22-year-old elementary school teacher, as an Islamic movement following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the subsequent ban of the caliphate system of government that had united the Muslims for hundreds of years. Al-Banna based his ideas that Islam was not only a religious observance, but a comprehensive way of life, on the tenets of Wahhabism, better known today as "Islamism", and he supplemented the traditional Islamic education for the Society’s male students with jihadia training. The Brotherhood grew over the next 20 years, encompassing not only religion and education, but also politics, through the Party of the Muslim Brotherhood, Hizb Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimoon. It blamed the Egyptian government for being passive against "Zionists" and joined the Palestinian side in the war against Israel; and started performing terrorist acts inside of Egypt, which led to a ban on the movement by the Egyptian government. A Muslim Brother assassinated the Prime Minister of Egypt, Mahmud Fahmi Nokrashi, on December 28, 1948. Al-Banna himself was killed by government agents in Cairo in February, 1949. The Egyptian government legalized the Brotherhood again in 1948, but only as a religious organization; it was banned again in 1954 because it insisted that Egypt be governed under shari’a (Islamic law). As indicated in the trial of the U.S. v Holy Land Foundation trial the MB has many contacts within the US and Europe.
Broader Terms:HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)
Narrower Terms:Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development