Reference Guide 11-39
Reassessment and Adjustment
Pitfalls and Best Practices:
- Best Practices:
- Database and map all development projects; ensure project data is shared (situational awareness) across brigade combat teams (BCTs) and provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs).
- Establish informal structures (personal relationships) to improve civil-military relations.
- Encourage civilian and military personnel, as well as coalition partners, to meet face-to-face on a regular basis (weekly/monthly synchronization meetings) and to exchange information.
- Failure to have integrated plans.
- Failure to have a legal review and a clearinghouse process for contracts/Commander's Emergency Response Fund projects.
- Governance/development/agricultural programs need to be vetted from the bottom up before they are implemented; otherwise, they may be completely inappropriate for a given province or district.
Sources of Friction:
- What sources of friction and instability remain among the local populace?
- Collusion with insurgents.
- Expectations for construction completion timelines.
- Expectations for post-construction services.
- What sources of friction, if any, are adversely impacting BCT-PRT "unity of effort"?
- The speed at which PRTs and agencies operate is often a source of friction for the BCT and its maneuver battalions (BNs). Development and governance actions, by nature, take longer to work and to achieve effects than do security actions.
- Uncoordinated security actions that have a detrimental effect on governance and/or development.
- Personality conflicts between leaders.
- "Who works for whom?"
- BCT/BN/PRTs should enforce and adhere to the Combined Joint Task Force standard for databases and information-sharing protocols.
- BCT/BN/PRT staffs should recommend adjustments to the commander's critical information requirements (CCIR) as needed to support their commander's decision making. BN CCIR and PRT CCIR should dovetail with BCT CCIR.
- BCT/BN/PRT S-2s should regularly collaborate and assess whether priority intelligence requirements (PIR) have been met. What are the gaps?
- An effective best practice is to establish a semi-formal "S-2 Board," which meets in advance of the Influence Operations (Ops) Board and the Targeting Board. The "S-2 Board" brings together available S-2 resources - teaming the BN, PRT, and ADT S-2 shops. It also serves to align S-2 assessments and briefings in advance of the other boards.
Common Operating Picture:
- The common operating picture (COP) should provide a common visual display for the BCT, BN, and PRT - resulting from the CCIR, agreed-upon processes for collection, and the latest updates of summarized information.
- During the relief in place, new members should be trained on the system used to develop the COP, and they should understand how to maintain the data and why it is important.
- Development of a reconstruction and development COP and sharing it with the provincial governor and donors can expand "unity of effort" and help eliminate misunderstanding with respect to projects and their locations.
- If the BN and PRT are collocated, consideration should be given to establishing a single tactical operations center - to centralize information, collocate critical processes, and build "unity of effort."
Influence Ops Board:
- (BCTs and PRTs) Who are you going to influence? How?
- Everything you do (BCTs and PRTs) is in relation to the Afghans. Is the Afghan government being connected with its constituency, and will it be able to counter the messages and services delivered by the insurgents? (As an example, one message the average Afghan should get from information operations would make them ask, "What has the Taliban done for me lately, except lie?")
- Reassessment of the environment, problems, goals, and plans should inform and influence what you do (BCTs and PRTs).
- Recent District Stability Framework (DSF) survey information analysis and other stability working group (SWG) products should be discussed and incorporated into plans and operations.