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Handbook 06-08
May 2006

Appendix H

First Responder Categories and Capabilities

Definition:

Definition of “First Responder” as outlined in Homeland Security Presidential Directive/HSPD-8:

2) Definitions: d) The term ‘first responder’ refers to those individuals who in the early stages of an incident are responsible for the protection and preservation of life, property, evidence, and the environment, including emergency response providers as defined in section 2 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 101), as well as emergency management, public health, clinical care, public works, and other skilled support personnel (such as equipment operators) that provide immediate support services during prevention, response, and recovery operations.

First Responders Awareness Level Guidelines:

Law enforcement

  • Awareness level: Address training requirements for law enforcement personnel who are likely to witness or discover an event involving the terrorist/criminal use of weapons of mass destruction or who may be sent out to initially investigate the report of such an event. Generally, all actions to be taken by these personnel should be conducted from within the cold zone.1 If personnel find themselves in the warm2or hot zone,3 they are to move from that zone and encourage others, if ambulatory, to move to a staging area away from the immediate threat. They should attempt to minimize further contamination. Awareness level guidelines for law enforcement officers:
    • Recognize hazardous materials incidents.
    • Know the protocols used to detect the potential presence of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) agents or materials.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures for WMD events and hazardous materials events.
    • Know procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know and follow agency/organization’s scene security and control procedures for WMD and hazardous material events.
    • Possess and know how to properly use equipment to contact dispatcher or higher authorities to report information collected at the scene and to request additional assistance or emergency response personnel.

Fire fighters

  • Awareness level: Address training requirements for fire fighters who are likely to witness or discover an event involving the terrorist/criminal use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or who may be sent out to initially investigate the report of such an event. Generally, all actions to be taken by these personnel should be conducted from within the cold zone. If personnel find themselves in the warm or hot zone, they are to move from that zone and encourage others, if ambulatory, to move to a staging area away from the immediate threat.
    • Recognize hazardous materials incidents.
    • Know the protocols used to detect the potential presence of WMD agents or materials.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures for WMD events and hazardous materials events.
    • Know procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know and follow agency/organization’s scene security and control procedures for WMD and hazardous material events.
    • Possess and know how to properly use equipment to contact dispatcher or higher authorities to report information collected at the scene and to request additional assistance or emergency response personnel.

Emergency medical service (EMS) providers

  • Awareness level: Address training requirements for EMS providers who are likely to respond to or discover an event involving the terrorist/criminal use of weapons of mass destruction or who may be sent out to initially investigate the report of such an event. Generally, all actions to be taken by these personnel should be conducted from within the cold zone. If personnel find themselves in the warm or hot zone, they are to move from that zone and encourage others, if ambulatory, to move to a staging area away from the immediate threat. They should attempt to minimize further contamination. It is assumed that the EMS provider at the awareness level does not have emergency response supplies with him/her when arriving at the potential WMD scene (unless dispatched). The EMS provider that is anticipated to be covered by these guidelines would be trained in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) using the Red Cross Community First Aid Course or equivalent, up to and including paramedic trained personnel and emergency physicians.
    • Recognize hazardous materials incidents.
    • Know the protocols used to detect the potential presence of WMD agents or materials.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures for WMD events and hazardous materials events.
    • Know procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know and follow agency/organization’s scene security and control procedures for WMD and hazardous material events.
    • Possess and know how to properly use equipment to contact dispatcher or higher authorities to report information collected at the scene and to request additional assistance or emergency response personnel. Know how to characterize a WMD event and be able to identify available response assets within the affected jurisdiction(s).

Emergency management personnel

  • Awareness level: Address training requirements for emergency management personnel who are likely to witness or discover an event involving the terrorist/criminal use of weapons of mass destruction or who may be sent out to initially investigate the report of such an event. Generally, all actions to be taken by these personnel should be conducted from within the cold zone. If personnel find themselves in the warm or hot zone, they are to move from that zone and encourage others, if ambulatory, to move to a staging area away from the immediate threat.
    • Recognize hazardous materials incidents.
    • Know the protocols used to detect the potential presence of WMD agents or materials.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures for WMD events and hazardous materials events.
    • Know procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know and follow agency/organization’s scene security and control procedures for WMD and hazardous material events.
    • Possess and know how to properly use equipment to contact dispatcher or higher authorities to report information collected at the scene and to request additional assistance or emergency response personnel.

Public works employees

  • Awareness level: Address training requirements for public works employees who are likely to witness or discover an event involving the terrorist/criminal use of WMD or who may be sent out to initially investigate the report of such an event. This training should target all non-operational employees; line personnel and operations supervisors, including highway maintenance crews; planners, engineers, and lab technicians; and superintendents. This training also is appropriate for agency directors employed by public works facilities associated with a local community, including a public works facility such as wastewater treatment or water operations covered by the emergency response plan. Generally, all actions to be taken by these personnel should be conducted from within the cold zone. If personnel find themselves in the warm or hot zone, they are to move from that zone and encourage others, if ambulatory, to move to a staging area away from the immediate threat.
    • Recognize hazardous materials incidents.
    • Know the protocols used to detect the potential presence of WMD agents or materials.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures for WMD events and hazardous materials events.
    • Know procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know and follow agency/organization’s scene security and control procedures for WMD and hazardous material events.
    • Possess and know how to properly use equipment to contact dispatcher or higher authorities to report information collected at the scene and to request additional assistance or emergency response personnel.

First Responders Performance Level Guidelines

Law enforcement

  • Performance level: This level is divided into two parts with a separate set of training guidelines for each part. The training guidelines for the law enforcement officer at the performance level target officers who will likely be responding to the scene of a hazardous materials event or a potential terrorist criminal use of WMD event. These officers will conduct on-scene operations within the warm zone and/or the hot zone (if properly trained and equipped) that has been set up on the scene of a potential WMD or hazardous materials event to control and close out the incident. It is expected that those officers trained for Performance Level A will work in the warm zone and cold zone and support those officers working in the hot zone. Officers trained for Performance Level B will work in the hot zone, and in the other zones set up on the incident scene as needed.
  • Performance Level A (operations level) guidelines for law enforcement officers:
    • Have successfully completed adequate and proper training at the awareness level for events involving hazardous materials and for WMD and other specialized training.
    • Know the Incident Command System and be able to follow Unified Command System procedures for the integration and implementation of each system. Know how the systems integrate and support the incident. Be familiar with the overall operation of the two command systems and be able to assist in implementation of the Unified Command System if needed.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures and rescue and evacuation procedures for WMD events.
    • Know and follow procedures for working at the scene of a potential WMD event.
  • Performance Level B (technician level) guidelines for law enforcement officers:
    • Have successfully completed training at the Awareness Level and Performance Level A for events involving hazardous materials, and for WMD and other specialized training.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures and rescue and evacuation procedures for WMD events.
    • Know and follow procedures for performing specialized work at the scene of a potential WMD event.
    • Know and follow Incident Command System and Unified Command System procedures and steps required for implementation of each system. Understand how the two systems are to work together.

Fire service

  • Performance level: This level is divided into two parts with a separate set of training guidelines for each part. The training guidelines for fire fighters at the performance level target fire fighters who will likely be responding to the scene of a hazardous materials event or a potential terrorist/criminal use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) event. These fire fighters will conduct on-scene operations within the warm zone and/or the hot zone (if properly trained and equipped) that has been set up on the scene of a potential WMD or hazardous materials event to control and close out the incident. It is expected that fire fighters trained for Performance Level A will work in the warm zone and cold zone and support those fire fighters working in the hot zone. Fire fighters trained for Performance Level B will work in the hot zone, and in the other zones set up on the incident scene as needed.
  • Performance Level A (operations level) guidelines for fire fighters:
    • Have successfully completed adequate and proper training at the awareness level for events involving hazardous materials and for WMD and other specialized training.
    • Know the Incident Command System and be able to follow Unified Command System procedures for the integration and implementation of each system. Know how the systems integrate and support the incident. Be familiar with the overall operation of the two command systems and be able to assist in implementation of the Unified Command System if needed.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures and rescue and evacuation procedures for WMD events.
    • Know and follow procedures for working at the scene of a potential WMD event.
  • Performance Level B (technical level) guidelines for fire fighters:
    • Have successfully completed training at the Awareness Level and Performance Level A for events involving hazardous materials, and for WMD and other specialized training.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures and rescue and evacuation procedures for WMD events.
    • Know and follow procedures for performing specialized work at the scene of a potential WMD event.
    • Know and follow Incident Command System and Unified Command System procedures and steps required for implementation of each system. Understand how the two systems are to work together.

EMS

  • Performance level: This level is divided into two parts with a separate set of training guidelines for each part. The training guidelines for EMS providers at the performance level target personnel who will likely be responding to the scene of a hazardous materials event or a potential terrorist/criminal use of WMD event. These EMS responders will conduct on-scene operations within the warm zone and cold zone that have been set up on the scene of a potential WMD or hazardous materials event. They are expected to provide emergency medical assistance and treatment to the victims and support those involved in the control and mitigation of the on-scene hazards and to assist in bringing the incident to a successful conclusion. EMS responders trained for Performance Level A will work in the warm and cold zones and support the other emergency responders in any of the three zones. EMS responders trained for Performance Level B will supervise or serve as team leaders for EMS groups given various assignments by the incident commander or incident management team under the unified command system. Performance Level B EMS responders will work in the warm and cold zones, but they will have some special training in rescuing or assisting in rescuing victims in the hot zone. Hot zone rescue efforts will be coordinated with the fire service and hazardous material (HAZMAT) responders.
  • Performance Level A (operations level) guidelines for EMS responders:
    • Have successfully completed adequate and proper training at the awareness level for events involving hazardous materials, and for WMD and other specialized training.
    • Know the Incident Command System and be able to follow Unified Command System procedures for the integration and implementation of each system. Know how the systems integrate and support the incident. Be familiar with the overall operation of the two command systems and be able to assist in implementation of the Unified Command System if needed.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures and rescue and evacuation procedures for WMD events.
    • Know and follow procedures for working at the scene of a potential WMD event.
  • Performance Level B (technical level) guidelines for fire fighters:
    • Have successfully completed training at the Awareness Level and Performance Level A for events involving hazardous materials, and for WMD and other specialized training.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures and rescue and evacuation procedures for WMD events.
    • Know and follow procedures for performing specialized work at the scene of a potential WMD event.
    • Know and follow Incident Command System and Unified Command System procedures and steps required for implementation of each system. Understand how the two systems are to work together.

Hazardous materials

  • Performance level: This performance level will be a single tier of training guidelines for HAZMAT emergency responders. These guidelines at the performance level target those emergency responders who will be responding to the scene of a HAZMAT or potential terrorist/criminal use of WMD event. These HAZMAT responders will conduct on-scene operations within the hot and warm zones that have been established at the scene of a potential WMD or HAZMAT event. These personnel may also work in the cold zone as needed. These HAZMAT responders will likely be involved controlling and mitigating hazards found on the scene and in bringing the incident to a successful conclusion under the direction of an operations officer and the on-scene incident commander.
  • Performance Level A (operations level) guidelines for HAZMAT responders:
    • Have successfully completed adequate and proper training at the awareness level for events involving HAZMAT, and for WMD and other specialized training.
    • Know the Incident Command System and be able to follow Unified Command System procedures for the integration and implementation of each system. Know how the systems integrate and support the incident. Be familiar with the overall operation of the two command systems and be able to assist in implementation of the Unified Command System if needed.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures and rescue and evacuation procedures for WMD events.
    • Know and follow procedures for working at the scene of a potential WMD event.
  • Performance Level B (technical level) guidelines for HAZMAT responder:
    • Have successfully completed training at the Awareness Level and Performance Level A for events involving HAZMAT and for WMD and other specialized training.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures and rescue and evacuation procedures for WMD events.
    • Know and follow procedures for performing specialized work at the scene of a potential WMD event.
    • Know and follow Incident Command System and Unified Command System procedures and steps required for implementation of each system. Understand how the two systems are to work together.

Public works

  • Performance level: This performance level addresses training requirements for all non-operational employees; line personnel and operations supervisors; planners, engineers, and lab technicians; and superintendent / agency directors employed by public works facilities. These personnel will be involved in a community response to a WMD incident, particularly an incident affecting wastewater treatment or water operations, which may represent WMD targets. It is assumed that non-public works personnel will comprise emergency responders. Therefore, training requirements associated with any Federal or State contingency planning and preparedness requirements for responding to such an incident are not considered.
  • Performance Level A (operations level) guidelines for public works personnel:
    • General line operations personnel and supervisors. Have successfully completed additional training beyond awareness level to be able to provide skilled support services in the event of a WMD attack targeting a public works facility.
    • Planners, engineers, and lab technicians. Have successfully completed additional training to effectively respond to a WMD incident either within a public works facility or within the community.

Planning And Management Level Guidelines

Law enforcement

  • Planning and management level: Address training requirements for law enforcement officials who are expected to be part of the leadership and management team that likely will respond to an event involving the terrorist/criminal use of WMD. At the very least, law enforcement managers will be involved in onsite planning for and managing scene security services. They will help set up the crime scene investigation and evidence gathering that will be coordinated with the command post at the scene. These personnel are expected to manage onsite law enforcement resources and assist the incident commander in bringing the event to a successful conclusion. Generally, all of the actions to be taken by these law enforcement managers should be conducted from within the cold zone. As access is provided to law enforcement officers to conduct their potential crime scene investigation, there may be times for the law enforcement managers to come within the warm zone. It is expected that law enforcement managers will be integrated into the overall command structure that is implemented for the management and supervision of resources and assets being deployed to mitigate and recover from the overall WMD emergency event.
  • Planning and management level guidelines for law enforcement managers:
    • Have successfully completed training in awareness, performance, and management levels for events involving hazardous materials and for WMD.
    • Know Incident Command System and the Unified Command System’s procedures and the steps required for implementation of each system. Understand how the systems are integrated and implemented to work together and what information the on-scene manager needs from the law enforcement manager. Be familiar with the full range of incident command functions and be able to fulfill any functions related to law enforcement operations.
    • Know protocols to secure and retain control of the emergency scene and to allow only authorized persons involved with the emergency incident to gain access to the scene of WMD agents and/or hazardous materials.
    • Know and follow self-protection measures and protective measures for personnel on the scene of WMD events and hazardous materials events.
    • Know and follow procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know plans and assets available for the crime scene investigation and control of WMD and HAZMAT events to secure and retain evidence removed from the scene.

Fire service

  • Planning and management level: Address training requirements for fire department senior officers who are expected to be part of the leadership and management team that likely will respond to an event involving the terrorist/criminal use of WMD. Fire department senior officers will be involved in planning for and managing the emergency on-site scene and will help implement the on-scene command post. These officers are expected to manage fire fighters and other allied emergency responders, who will support the ongoing operations to mitigate and control the hazardous agents and materials, using any available resources to safely and sufficiently conclude the event. Generally, actions to be taken by fire department senior officers should be conducted from the cold zone (sometimes from the warm zone). It is expected that fire service managers will be integrated into the overall command structure that is implemented for the management and supervision of resources and assets being deployed to mitigate and recover from the overall WMD emergency event.
  • Planning and management level guidelines for fire department senior officers:
    • Have successfully completed training in awareness, performance, and management levels for events involving HAZMAT and for WMD.
    • Know Incident Command System and the Unified Command System’s procedures and the steps required for implementation of each system. Understand how the systems are integrated and implemented to work together and what information the on-scene manager needs from the fire department manager. Be familiar with the full range of incident command functions, and be able to fulfill any functions related to fire department operations.
    • Know protocols to secure, mitigate, and remove hazardous agents or materials that may be WMD agents or materials.
    • Know and follow self-protection and protective measures for emergency responders to WMD and HAZMAT events.
    • Understand development of the Incident Action Plan and know assets available for controlling WMD and HAZMAT events, in coordination with the on-scene incident commander. In collaboration with the on-scene incident commander, be able to assist in planning and in determining operational goals and objectives to bring the event to a successful conclusion.
    • Know and follow procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know and follow department protocols for medical monitoring of response personnel involved with or working at WMD and HAZMAT events.

EMS

  • Planning and management level: Address training requirements for emergency providers who will be part of the leadership and management of the emergency medical team likely to respond to an event involving the terrorist/criminal use of WMD. These emergency medical managers will be involved in planning for and managing on-site emergency medical services (EMS). They also will help set up the command post at the scene. These personnel are expected to manage emergency medical resources used to successfully conclude the event. Generally, all of the actions to be taken by these emergency medical team managers should be conducted from within the cold zone (and at times from within the warm zone). It is expected that the emergency medical team managers will be integrated into the overall command structure set up for management and supervision of resources and assets deployed to control and conclude the overall WMD or HAZMAT emergency event.
  • Planning and management level guidelines for emergency medical providers team managers:
    • Have successfully completed training in awareness, performance, and management levels for events involving HAZMAT and for WMD.
    • Know and follow Incident Command System and Unified Command System procedures and requirements for implementing each system. Understand how the systems are implemented and integrated. Know what information the on-scene incident commander will need from the EMS manager.
    • Know and follow protocols to provide emergency medical treatment to persons involved in a potential or actual WMD event.
    • Know and follow self-protection and protective measures for victims of WMD events and HAZMAT events. Understand the special hazards to humans from WMD agents and hazardous materials.
    • Know the plans and assets available for transporting the victims of WMD and hazardous materials events to more advanced medical care at hospitals and similar facilities. Be familiar with the department emergency plan criteria for transporting victims to more advanced medical care facilities.
    • Know and follow procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know and follow department protocols for medical monitoring of response personnel involved or working with WMD and HAZMAT events.

HAZMAT

  • Planning and management level: Address training requirements for HAZMAT team managers who will be part of the leadership and management of the emergency response team likely to respond to an event involving the terrorist/criminal use of WMD. These personnel will be involved in planning and managing the onsite scene involving the hot and warm zones. They will help set up the on-scene command post. HAZMAT team managers are expected to supervise staff who will attempt to mitigate and control the hazardous agents and materials. They are expected to use all available resources to bring the event to a successful conclusion. Generally, all of the actions to be taken by HAZMAT team managers should be conducted from within the warm zone or out to the cold zone. It is important that HAZMAT team managers are integrated into the overall command structure set up for management and supervision of resources and assets being deployed to control and conclude the WMD emergency event.
  • Planning and management level guidelines for HAZMAT team managers:
    • Have successfully completed training in awareness, performance, and management levels for events involving HAZMAT and WMD agents.
    • Know and follow Incident Command System and Unified Command System procedures and requirements for implementing each system. Understand how the systems are implemented and integrated. Know what information the on-scene incident commander will need from the HAZMAT team manager. Be familiar with the full range of incident command functions and be able to fulfill any function pertaining to HAZMAT team operations.
    • Know and follow protocols and procedures to secure, mitigate, and remove hazardous materials or potential WMD agents.
    • Know and follow self-protection and protective measures for emergency responders to WMD events and hazardous materials events. Be aware of the special hazards to humans from WMD agents and hazardous materials.
    • Know how to develop an incident action plan. Coordinate with the on-scene incident commander assets available for controlling WMD and hazardous materials events.
    • Know and follow procedures for protecting a potential crime scene. Understand the roles and jurisdiction of federal agencies in a WMD event.
    • Know and follow department protocols for medical monitoring of response personnel involved with or working onsite at WMD and HAZMAT events, including response team members involved with or working within the hot and warm control zones or personnel involved in onsite decontamination.

Emergency management

  • Planning and management level: Address training requirements for emergency management personnel who will be part of the leadership and management team expected to respond to an event involving the terrorist criminal use of WMD. These emergency management directors/coordinators/team managers will be involved in preparing plans for mobilizing and coordinating the resources and assets needed for managing emergency operations and for providing onsite technical assistance when needed. These personnel will assist in planning implementation of the incident command structure, staffing of the satellite or headquarters emergency operations center, and establishing the command post or mobile command unit at the scene. These personnel are expected to work in a coordinated manner with the on-scene incident commander or unified command team to manage the emergency management resources required for bringing the event to a successful conclusion. Generally, many of the activities conducted by the emergency management team will be away from the immediate emergency incident scene, but require staying in communication with those at the scene. All of the actions to be taken by these emergency management team managers are expected to be conducted from within the cold zone. It is expected that the emergency management team managers will be part of the overall response, but will not be part of the on scene incident command structure as called for in the emergency response preplan or the emergency operations plan document. However, the emergency manager is responsible for developing, testing, exercising, and revising the preplan or emergency operations plan established for coordinating management and supervision of the resources and assets that will be needed to control and successfully conclude the overall WMD emergency event.
  • Planning and management level guidelines for emergency management agency’s emergency managers:
    • Have successfully completed appropriate and qualified training at the awareness and management levels for events involving HAZMAT and for WMD.
    • Know and follow Incident Command System and Unified Command System procedures and requirements for implementing each system. Understand how the systems are implemented and integrated. Recognize when it is appropriate for the Unified Command System to evolve from the Incident Command System. Know what information the on-scene incident commander will need from the emergency management agency emergency operations center. Be familiar with the full range of coordinating activities and duties of the emergency management agency and all incident command functions. Assist those persons who will be fulfilling functions related to the emergency operations plan.
    • Know how to develop an Incident Action Plan and identify assets available for controlling WMD and HAZMAT events. Coordinate these activities with the on-scene incident commander. Be familiar with steps to take to assist in planning operational goals and objectives that are to be followed on site in cooperation with the on-scene incident commander.
    • Know and follow self-protection and protective measures for the public and for emergency responders to WMD events and hazardous materials events.
    • Know and follow procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know how to interface with and integrate requisite emergency support services and resources among the emergency operations center (EOC) management and the incident or unified command on-scene incident management team. Be familiar with the coordination functions and procedures that are to be conducted by and with the EOC in support of on-scene emergency response activities.

Public works

  • Planning and management level: Address training requirements for all public works supervisors, planners, engineers, and superintendent/agency directors employed by public works facilities associated with a local jurisdiction involved in planning for emergency response to a WMD incident including one at a public works facility. Public works facilities, such as wastewater treatment or drinking water operations or a nuclear power plant, may represent WMD targets within the local jurisdiction. Properly trained public works managers will improve the overall effectiveness of emergency planning and preparedness for response to an incident within the local jurisdiction. Typically, it is assumed that non-public works personnel will constitute the emergency response organizations or resources. If, however, an incident were to occur at a power plant or other public works plant, the employees of the particular plant likely would be the first responders in protecting their own personnel.
  • Planning and management level guidelines for public works managers and supervisors:
    • Have successfully completed appropriate and qualified training at the awareness and management levels for events involving HAZMAT and WMD agents.
    • Know and follow Incident Command System and Unified Command System procedures and requirements for implementing each system. Understand how the systems are implemented and integrated. Know what information the on-scene incident commander will need from the public works supervisor or manager. Be familiar with the full range of coordinating activities and duties of the public works agencies. Understand the Incident Command System and the Unified Command System.
    • Know how to develop appropriate plans for actions to be taken by the public works agency when a WMD and hazardous materials event occurs. Know how to coordinate plans with the on-scene incident commander. Know what steps to take to assist in planning operational goals and objectives that are to be followed on site in cooperation with the on-scene incident commander in bringing the event to a successful conclusion.
    • Know and follow self-protection and protective measures for the public and for public works emergency responders in WMD events and HAZMAT events.
    • Know and follow procedures for protecting a potential crime scene.
    • Know how to interface and integrate emergency support services and resources that will be needed (or are needed) among the EOC, the on-scene incident management team, and public works facilities and agencies. Be familiar with the coordination functions and procedures that are to be conducted by public works with the EOC to support on-scene emergency response activities.
      See: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/docs/EmergencyRespGuidelinesRevB.pdf

First Responders Resources

WMD civil support team (WMD-CST). The WMD-CST was established to deploy rapidly to assist a local incident commander in determining the nature and extent of an attack or incident; provide expert technical advice on WMD response operations; and help identify and support the arrival of follow-on state and federal military response assets. They are joint units and, as such, can consist of both Army National Guard and Air National Guard personnel, with some of these units commanded by Air National Guard lieutenant colonels.

The mission of WMD-CST is to support local and state authorities at domestic WMD/nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) incident sites by identifying agents and substances, assessing current and projected consequences, advising on response measures, and assisting with requests for additional military support.

The WMD-CMT are able to deploy rapidly, assist local first-responders in determining the nature of an attack, provide medical and technical advice, and pave the way for the identification and arrival of follow-on state and federal military response assets. They provide initial advice on what the agent may be and assist first responders in the detection assessment process. They are the first military responders on the ground, so that if additional federal resources are called into the situation they can serve as an advance party that can liaise with the joint task force civil support.

The units provide critical protection to the force, from the pre-deployment phase of an operation at home station through redeployment. They ensure that strategic national interests are protected against any enemy; foreign or domestic, attempting to employ chemical, biological, or radiological weapons, regardless the level of WMD/NBC threat. They are a key element of the DOD’s overall program to provide support to civil authorities in the event of an incident involving WMD in the United States.

They maintain the capability to mitigate the consequences of any WMD/NBC event, whether natural or man-made. They are experts in WMD effects and NBC defense operations.

These National Guard teams provide DOD’s unique expertise and capabilities to assist state governors in preparing for and responding to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) incidents as part of a state’s emergency response structure. Each team consists of 22 highly skilled, full-time National Guard members who are federally resourced, trained, and exercised and employs federally approved CBRN response doctrine.

The WMD-CST is not designed to replace the first responder. The team integrates into the Incident Command System (ICS) in support of the local incident commander, providing a crucial capability between the initial local response and that of follow-on federal and state assets. Municipal fire, HAZMAT, police, and EMS agencies have a proven capability to deal with most emergencies. Larger incidents use mutual aid plans and the ICS to cope with the emergency. However, a WMD attack would present unique obstacles, such as identification of a military agent or spread of contamination, that could quickly overwhelm existing local and state resources. The WMD-CST provides rapid detection and analysis of chemical, biological, and radiological hazards agents at a WMD incident scene. The team is trained for CBRNE response and can provide advice on event mitigation, medical treatment, follow-on resources, and other response concerns to the incident commander.

  • WMD-CST key characteristics:
    • Must be certified by Secretary of Defense
    • Unique to the National Guard
    • Main role is support to governor and incident commander
    • Operates only within the US Territory
    • Manned by Title 32 full-time (AGR) Army and Air National Guard personnel
    • Interoperable with civil responders

CBRNE enhanced response force package (CERFP). Another asset that the National Guard can bring in the near future is the CERFP. The NG CERFP consists of a core of full-time personnel augmented by traditional National Guard citizen-Soldiers and airmen. The NG CERFP concept combines existing Army and Air Force National Guard medical, engineer, and security forces to leverage current force structure into a capabilities-based force packages with some adjustments in organization and equipment.

The CERFP can perform mass medical decontamination, technical casualty search and extraction, and emergency medical treatment in hostile WMD operating environments.

Functioning as a robust follow-on team capability to the WMD-CST the NGCERFP is composed of five cells: command and control, security, medical, extraction and decontamination, and medical services. Much larger than the WMD-CST, the CERFP can operate for much longer durations. A CERFP typically consists of an enhanced division medical company with a decontamination and treatment capability and an enhanced engineer company. Currently the teams are being formed and not all teams are functional.

A complete WMD-CST listing with contact information follows:

S
T
A
T
E

Unit Designation/
Type of Team/
Certification Date

WMD-CST

FEMA Region

DOD Region/Army

A
L
A
B
A
M
A

46th WMD-CST HEAVY

Commander, 46th WMD-CST
P.O. Box 9038
Montgomery, AL 36108
Phone: (334) 954-3400
Fax: (334) 206-2454
Alabama JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (334) 271-7207
Installation: 3101 Tine Ave, Montgomery, AL 36108

IV

NORTHCOM RTF East

A
L
A
S
K
A

103rd WMD-CST HEAVY

Commander, 103rd WMD-CST
PO Box 5800,
Ft Richardson AK 99505-5800
Phone: (907) 384-9401/9402
Fax: (907) 384-9414
Alaska JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: 1-800-478-2337
Installation: Bryant Army Guard Heliport,
Fort Richardson/Camp Denali (US Army)

X

NORTHCOM

A
R
I
Z
O
N
A

91st WM -CST HEAVY

Commander, 91st WMD-CST
5636 E. McDowell Road
Phoenix, AZ 85008-3495
Phone: (602) 267-2953
Fax: (602) 267-2679
Arizona JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (602) 267-2428
(DSN 853)
Installation: Papago Park Military Reservation

IX

NORTHCOM

A
R
K
A
N
S
A
S

61st WMD-CST HEAVY

Commander, 61st WMD-CST
Camp Robinson,
Box 35
North Little Rock, AR72199-9600
Phone: (501) 212-4261
Fax: (501) 212-4269
Arkansas JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (501) 212-5470

Installation: Camp Robinson, AR

VI

NORTHCOM

C
A
L
I
F
O
R
N
I
A

95th WMD-CST
HEAVY/CERFP TEAM

Commander 95th WMD-CST
1525 W. Winton Ave, Building 9
Hayward, CA 94545-1310
Phone: (510) 780-0683
Fax: (510) 293-1809
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (916) 854-3440
Installation: Hayward ANG Base (CAANG)

IX

NORTHCOM

9th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 9th WMD-CST
11302A Independence Dr.
Los Alamitos (JFTB),CA 90720-5155
Phone: (562) 413-1516
Fax: (562)795-2529
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (916) 854-3440
Installation: Los Alamitos Joint Forces Training Base

(CA NG)

NORTHCOM

C
O
L
O
R
A
D
O

8th WMD-CST
HEAVY/CERFP TEAM

Commander 8th WMD-CST
19070 E. Sunlight Way,
Mail Stop 36
Buckley AFB, Aurora, CO 80011
Phone: (720) 847-6874
Fax: (720) 847-8899
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (720) 847-8887
Installation: Buckley AFB (USAF)

VIII

NORTHCOM

C
O
N
N
E
C
T
I
C
U
T

14th WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander 14th WMD-CST
Army Aviation Support Facility #152
Windsor Locks, Connecticut 06096
Phone: (860) 627-7942
Fax: (860) 524-4836
State HQ
Connecticut JFHQ JOC
Phone: (860) 524-4824
Installation: AASF #152, Winsor Locks Connecticut

I

NORTHCOM

D
E
L
A
W
A
R
E

31st WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 31st WMD-CST
103 Artisan Drive
Smyrna, DE 19977
Phone: (302) 326-7548
Fax: Delaware
WMD POC:
Phone: (302) 326-7086
Installation: Smyrna Readiness Center

III

NORTHCOM

D
I
S
T
R
I
C
T

OF

C
O
L
U
M
B
I
A

33rd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander 33rd WMD-CST
DCNG-CST,
2001 East Capitol Street
Washington, DC 20003
Phone: (202) 685-9955
Fax: (202) 685-8747

III

NORTHCOM

F
L
O
R
I
D
A

44th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 44th WMD-CST
Camp Blanding Training Site,
Route 1, Box 465
Building 5646
Stark, FL 32091-9705
Phone: (904) 682-2400
Fax: (904) 682-3230
Florida JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (904) 823-0431
Installation: Camp Blanding Training Site (State of Florida)

IV

NORTHCOM

G
E
O
R
G
I
A

4th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander 4th WMD-CST
956 Atlantic Ave., Building 553
Dobbins ARB, GA 30069
Phone: (678) 569-3700/ 3733
Fax: (678) 569-3704
Georgia JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (678) 655-5401/5403
Installation: Dobbins Air Reserve Base (USAFR)

IV

NORTHCOM

G
U
A
M

94th WMD-CST

Unavailable

IX

PACOM

H
A
W
A
I
I

93rd WMD-CST
HEAVY/CERFP TEAM

Commander 93rd WMD-CST
3949 Diamond Head Rd
Honolulu, HI 96816-4495
Phone: (808) 739-9805
Fax: (808) 739-2407
JFHQ JOC
24-Hour Phone: (808) 735-8202 (fax)
Installation: Diamond Head Crater (State of Hawaii)

IX

PACOM

I
D
A
H
O

101st WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 101st WMD-CST
3551 W. Ellsworth St. Bldg. 560
Boise, ID 83705
Phone: (208) 422-4281/4285
Fax: (208) 422-4282
JFHQ JOC
24-Hr Phone: (208) 422-5755
Installation: Gowen Field

X

NORTHCOM

I
L
L
I
N
O
I
S

5th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 5th WMD-CST
1301 N. MacArthur Blvd.
Springfield, Il. 62702-2399
Phone: (309) 697-3635
Fax: (309) 697-3868
JFHQ JOC
24-Hr Phone: (217) 761-3654
Installation: Bartonville Armed Forces Reserve Center

V

NORTHCOM

I
N
D
I
A
N
A

53rd WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 53rd WMD-CST
2002 S Holt Rd.
Indianapolis IN 46241-3949
Phone: (317) 247-3300x5050
Fax: (317) 247-3545
Indiana JFHQ WMD
Contact: (317) 247-3204
Installation: Stout Field, Military Department of Indiana

V

NORTHCOM

I
O
W
A

71st WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 71st WMD-CST
7700 NW Beaver Drive
Johnston, IA 50131-1902
Phone: (515) 334-2803/4/5/6/7/8
Fax: (515) 252-4930
Iowa JFHQ JOC
24-Hr Phone: (515) 249-0396
Installation: Des Moines ANG Base/Des Moines Int’l Aprt

VII

NORTHCOM


K
A
N
S
A
S

73rd WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 73rd WMD-CST
5920 SE Coyote Dr,
Forbes Field (ANG)
Topeka, KS 66619
Phone: (785) 861-4124
Fax: (785) 861-4038
Kansas JFHQ JOC
24-Hr Phone: (785) 296-3176 or 1-800-905-7521
Installation: 190th ARW ANG Forbes Field Topeka KS

VII

NORTHCOM

K
E
N
T
U
C
K
Y

41st WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 41st WMD-CST
1101 Grade Ln., BLDG 900
Louisville, KY 40213
Phone: (502) 364-9542
(DSN 741-4xxx)
Fax: (502) 364-9562
Kentucky JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: 1-800-255-2587
Installation: Louisville Air Base/ANG Facility (KYANG)

IV

NORTHCOM

L
O
U
I
S
I
A
N
A

62nd WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 62nd WMD-CST
5445 Point Clair Rd, Bldg 34,
Gillis Long CenterCarville, LA 70721
Phone: (225) 319-4779/4781
Fax: (225) 319-4699
Louisiana JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (504) 271-6262
Installation: Gillis Long Center (State of LA)

VI

NORTHCOM

M
A
I
N
E

11th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 11th WMD-CST
Colonel Lewis Millet Ready Building,
1 Armory Road
Waterville ME 04901
Phone: (207) 877-9623/873-9591
Fax: (207) 872-0864
Maine JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (207) 441-4109
Installation: Colonel Lewis Millet Ready Buildin
g

I

NORTHCOM

M
A
R
Y
L
A
N
D

32nd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 32nd WMD-CST
610 Reistertown Road
Pikesville, MD 21208
Phone: (410) 653-6732
Fax: (410) 653-6732
Maryland
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: TBA
Installation: Pikesville Armory

III

NORTHCOM

M
A
S
S
A
C
H
U
S
E
T
T
S

1st WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 1st WMD-CST
14 Minuteman Dr.
Wellesley MA 02181
Phone: (508) 233-7575
Fax: (508) 233-6492
Massachusetts
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (508) 233-6590
Installation: National Guard Compound (MAARNG)

I

NORTHCOM

M
I
C
H
I
G
A
N

51st WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 51st WMD-CST
2750 27th Street
Augusta, MI 49012
Phone: (269) 731-6522
Fax: (269) 731-3512
Michigan JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (517) 483-5500
Installation: Ft. Custer Training Center

V

NORTHCOM

M
I
N
N
E
S
O
T
A

55th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 55th WMD-CST
612 Militia Dr.
St Paul, MN 55111
Phone: (612) 713-2835/36/38
Fax: (612) 713-2349
Minnesota JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (651) 268-8860/61/62
Installation: 133rd Air Wing Base (ANG)

V

NORTHCOM

M
I
S
S
I
S
S
I
P
P
I

47th WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 47th WMD-CST
609 North Jackson Street
Crystal Springs, MS 39059
Phone: (601) 313-6193
Fax: (601) 313-6260
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (601) 313-6261

IV

NORTHCOM

M
I
S
S
O
U
R
I

7th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 7th WMD-CST
1260 Artillery Circle
Ft. Leonard Wood, MO 65473
Phone: (573) 329-9024
Fax: (573) 329-9016
Missouri JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (573) 638-9500
Installation: Fort Leonard Wood, MOV

II

NORTHCOM

M
O
N
T
A
N
A

83rd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 83rd WMD-CST
PO Box 4789
Fort Harrison, MT 59636-4789
Phone: (406) 324-3099
Fax: (406) 324-3676
Montana JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (406) 324-3170
Installation: Fort Harrison, MT

VIII

NORTHCOM

N
E
B
R
A
S
K
A

72nd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 72nd WMD-CST
1600 N 10th Street
Lincoln, NE 68508
Phone: (402) 309-7559
Fax: None
Nebraska JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (402) 309-7400
Installation:

VII

NORTHCOM

N
E
V
A
D
A

92nd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 92nd WMD-CST
4511 W. Cheyenne Ave. Suite 700
Las Vegas, NV 89032
Phone: (702) 643-4277
Fax: None
Nevada WMD CST
POC Phone: (775) 887-7891

IX

NORTHCOM

N
E
W

H
A
M
P
S
H
I
R
E

12th WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 12th WMD-CST
NHAG-12CST,
State Military Reservation,
4 Pembroke Rd Concord,NH 03301
Phone: (603) 225-1374
Fax: (603) 225-1293
New Hampshire
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (603) 227-1427 (FAX)
Installation: 26 Regional Drive, Concord, NH, 03301

I

NORTHCOM

N
E
W

J
E
R
S
E
Y

21st WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 21st WMD-CST
6749 E. 16th St. & Albany Ave
Fort Dix, New Jersey 08640
Phone: (609) 562-3036
Fax: (609) 562-3152
New Jersey
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (609) 530-7010
Installation: Fort Dix, New Jersey

II

NORTHCOM

N
E
W

M
E
X
I
C
O

64th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 64th WMD-CST
PO BOX 44190
Rio Rancho, NM 87174-4190
Phone: (505) 771-7802
Fax: (505) 771-7857
New Mexico
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (505) 474-1960
Installation: Rio Rancho Armory 4001 NW Loop Rd,
Rio Rancho, NM 87174

IV

NORTHCOM

N
O
R
T
H

D
A
K
O
T
A

81st WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 81st WMD-CST
4200 E Divide
Bismarck ND 58506-5511
Phone: (701) 333-2900
Fax: (701) 333-3314
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (701) 333-2906

VII

NORTHCOM

O
H
I
O

52nd WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 52nd WMD-CST
8202 South Access Road, Bldg. #946
Columbus, Ohio 43217-5946
Phone: (614) 336-6597
Fax: (614) 336-6635
Ohio JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: 1-888-889-7070/
(614) 336-7070
Installation: Rickenbacker Intl Airport/Army Enclave (US Army)

V

NORTHCOM

O
K
L
A
H
O
M
A

63rd WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 63rd WMD-CST
3620 24th Ave NW
Norman, OK 73069-8232
Phone: (405) 228-5880
Fax: (405) 321-6836
Oklahoma WMD CST JFHQ
POC: (405) 228-5208

VI

NORTHCOM


O
R
E
G
O
N

102nd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 102nd WMD-CST
102ndCST, PO Box 14350
Salem, Oregon 97309
Phone: (503) 584-2345
Fax: None
Oregon WMD CST JFHQ
POC Phone: (503) 584-3603
Installation: Salem Oregon

X

NORTHCOM

P
E
N
N
S
Y
L
V
A
N
I
A

3rd WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 3rd WMD-CST
Bldg 11-59
Fort Indiantown Gap
Annville PA 17003
Phone: (717) 861-2623
Fax: (717) 861-2655
Pennsylvania JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (717) 861-8936
Installation: Fort Indiantown Gap (State of PA)

III

NORTHCOM

P
U
E
R
T
O

R
I
C
O

22nd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 22nd WMD-CST
P.O. Box 34477
FT. Buchanan, PR, 00934
Phone: (787) 782-4280
Fax: (787) 782-4280
Puerto Rico JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (787) 723-7700/7711
Installation: Fort Buchanan, PR 00934

II

NORTHCOM

R
H
O
D
E

I
S
L
A
N
D

13th WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 13th WMD-CST
570 Read School House Rd
Coventry RI, 02816
Phone: (401) 392-0821
Fax: (401) 392-0822
WMD CST JFHQ
POC Phone: (401) 275-4123
Installation: Coventry, Air Guard Station

I

NORTHCOM

S
O
U
T
H

C
A
R
O
L
I
N
A

42nd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 42nd WMD-CST
851 Pine Ridge DriveWest
Columbia, SC 29172
Phone: (803) 806-3772/4336
Fax: (803) 806-2219
South Carolina
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (803) 806-4200
Installation: Fort Jackson/McGrady Training Center(SCARNG)

IV

NORTHCOM

S
O
U
T
H

D
A
K
O
T
A

82nd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 82nd WMD-CST
2823 W. Main Street, Bldg 509
Rapid City, SD 57702-8186
Phone: (312) 747-8971
Fax: None
South Dakota JFHQ
POC Phone: (605) 737-6693
Installation: Camp Rapid, Rapid City South Dakota

VIII

NORTHCOM

T
E
N
N
E
S
S
E
E

45th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 45th WMD-CST
VTS,BLDG 551; P.O. BOX 21
Smyrna, TN 37167
Phone: (615) 355-3618
Fax: (615) 355-3740
Tennessee JFHQ WMD CST POC Phone: (615) 313-3071
Installation: Volunteer Training Site, Smyrna, TN

IV

NORTHCOM

T
E
X
A
S

6th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 6th WMD-CST
PO Box 5218, Camp Mabry Bldg 87
Austin, TX 78763-5218
Phone: (512) 782-1900
Fax: (512) 782-1949
Texas JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (512) 782-5544
Installation: Bldg 87 Camp Mabry, Austin, TX 78703

VI

NORTHCOM

U
T
A
H

85th WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 85th WMD-CST
348 E. Main Street
Lehi, UT 84843
Phone: (801) 763-3040
Fax: (801) 763-6394
Utah JFHQ WMD-CST
POC Phone
Installation:

VIII

NORTHCOM

V
E
R
M
O
N
T

15th WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 15th WMD-CST
JDKFF228 Aviation AvenueSouth
Burlington, VT 05403-6097
Phone: (802) 338-3534
Fax: (802) 338-3511
Vermont JFHQ WMD-CST
POC Phone: (802) 338-3546
Installation: John D. Kneeland Flight Facility South Burlington, VT

I

NORTHCOM

V
I
R
G
I
N

I
S
L
A
N
D
S

23rd WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 23rd WMD-CST
W905NX LTC Lionel A. Jackson Armory BLDG 1
Bethlehem Street
St. Croix, VI 00850-9731
Phone: (340) 712-7946
Fax: (340) 712-7938
Virgin Islands
JFHQ POC
24-HR Phone: (340) 712-7789
Installation: LTC Lionel A. JacksonArmory

II

NORTHCOM

V
I
R
G
I
N
I
A

34th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 34th WMD-CST
PRN10F BLDG 318, Fort Pickett
Blackstone, VA 23824
Phone: (434) 292-8321/8323
Fax: (434) 292-8313
Virginia JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (804) 674-2400
(SDO VAANG)
Installation: Fort Pickett

III

NORTHCOM

W
A
S
H
I
N
G
T
O
N

10th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 10th WMD-CST
BLDG 34,
Camp Murray, WA 98430-5004
Phone: (253) 512-8063
Fax: (253) 512-8116
Washington JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (253) 512-8773
Installation: Camp Murray (Washington National Guard) - adjacent to Ft. Lewis/McChord AFB to the south of Tacoma, WA

X

NORTHCOM

W
E
S
T

V
I
R
G
I
N
I
A

35th WMD-CST
HEAVY

Commander, 35th WMD-CST
PO Box 1478
St. Albans WV 25177-1085
Phone: (304) 561-6210
Fax: (304) 561-6219
West Virginia
JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (304) 561-6401
Installation: 610 Dame St.
St. Albans, WV 25177

III

NORTHCOM

W
I
S
C
O
N
S
I
N

54th WMD-CST
LIGHT

Commander, 54th WMD-CST
1420 Wright St
Madison WI 53704
Phone: (608) 245-8430
Fax: (608) 242-3196
Wisconsin JFHQ JOC
24-HR Phone: (608) 242-3537
Installation: State owned Armory

V

NORTHCOM

W
Y
O
M
I
N
G

84th WMD-CST

Commander, 84th WMD-CST
5500 BishopBlvd
Cheyenne,WY 82009-3022
Phone: (307) 772-5029
Fax: None listed
JFHQ WMD
POC Phone: (307) 772-5264
Installation: State HQ 5500 Bishop Blvd, Cheyenne, WY 82009-3022
(203) 607-1730
(DSN 27)
Fax: 703-607-0040

VIII

NORTHCOM

End Notes:

1 Cold zone: Represents the outer boundary of an emergency incident and an area of the least potential for contaminant exposure to workers and others. It is generally an area intended to act as a buffer to keep persons not involved in the response away from the incident at a safe distance.

2 Warm zone: Represents an area of less potential for contaminant exposure to workers and is the zone that contains the decontamination area. The decontamination activity is located on the upwind and upgrade side and extends from the hot zone to the cold zone. This area may also be used to support the responders with miscellaneous equipment needs such as changing air bottles and replacing worn or damaged PPE. Exiting from the hot zone will be accomplished by going through the decontamination steps.

3Hot zone: Represents the area with the greatest degree of threat to individuals working in that area and requires the highest level of personal protection equipment. This area has to be clearly marked with banner tape or a satisfactory substitute to indicate to workers the high potential for exposure and thus the greatest level of personal protection.


 

 
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