Refugee Camp Funding Sources
MAJ Robert Perry, U.S. Army
Refugees from Afghanistan have been arriving in a steady stream over the past 30 days in the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. Afghanistan refugees as well as the Taliban constitute the majority of the population. Authorities estimate the refugee population could be as high as 3.5 million persons. The majority are being housed in refugee camps in NWFP that are situated along the Afghan border by the Pakistani Government with financial support from the United Nations through the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
Living conditions in the camps are harsh, in part due to the short period of time that authorities had to build them. Several of the new camps are beginning to receive provisions from the Pakistani government, along with medical and school facilities. In some areas, tents have been gradually replaced by more durable structures, as well as durable provisions of water, food, electricity, and sanitation services.
As part of its mission, 2BCT has been tasked to provide security for a number of newly developed refugee camps in the vicinity. As part of the assessment process, the commander has identified a number of camp shortfalls and desires to provide swift relief to the population within his area of responsibility (AOR).
(Note: The vignette was taken from the following sources: The Pro Bono Statistician Fritz Scheuren, 100th ASA President, 2005, and The Making of Amir: An Afghan Refugee Musician's Life in Peshawar, Pakistan, John Baily.)
The problem is that the immediate authorities of the newly developed camps have yet to emplace all of the components necessary to facilitate adequate living conditions within camp populations. Camp quality-of-life requirements cross several lines of responsibilities and can encompass engineering, health care, and emergency medical care, as well as food, water, and sanitation.
Click here for enlarged image.
Funding sources for these different requirements can be equally multifaceted and must be pursued through appropriate funding authorities and programs. Additionally, each responsible organization or agency may be restricted in the usage of specific funding authorities and programs. The commander of the 2BCT has been given this AOR in a Central Command (CENTCOM) AOR and should consider gaining funding assistance from the following three categories of authorities and programs:
- Global Funding Authorities:
- Combatant Commanders Initiative Fund (CCIF)
- Background: CCIF was authorized by Congress in 1992 (Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff [CJCS] Measure of Performance [MOP] 65) and is regulated by the CJCS. The primary focus of CCIF is to support unforeseen contingency requirements critical to unified commanders' joint warfighting readiness and/or related national security interests. The strongest candidates for approval are initiatives that support unified commander activities and functions, enhance interoperability, and yield high benefits at low cost. CCIF is a joint staff, J-7-managed, annual program. Each initiative is evaluated on its individual merits, competing with initiatives submitted from the six regional (CENTCOM, European Command [EUCOM], Pacific Command [PACOM], Northern Command [NORTHCOM], Southern Command [SOUTHCOM], African Command [AFRICOM]) and four functional (Special Operations Command [SOCOM], Strategic Command [STRATCOM], Transportation Command [TRANSCOM], and Space Command [SPACECOM]) commanders. Governing Regulation: CJCSI 7401.01, Department of Defense (DOD) Directive 5200.1. CENTCOM Functional Office of Primary Responsibility (OPR): CCJ8
- Cooperative Programs for Friendly Nations (Sections 401-406, "Humanitarian and Civic Assistance" [H/CA])
- Background: This program provides funds for projects to assist the civilian population of a developing nation. H/CA projects must be accomplished in conjunction with authorized military operations, enhance the security interests of the United States and the host nation, improve the specific operational skills of participating forces, and complement other forms of assistance from any other U.S. department or agency. Governing Regulation: CCR 525-23, DOD Instruction 2205.02. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ7
- Emergency and Extraordinary Expense Funds (EEE)
- Background: Exclusive authority granted to the secretary of defense and the service secretaries. This program provides funds to meet expenses not authorized or funded elsewhere and that cannot be anticipated or classified. This provides wide latitude to spend DOD operations and maintenance (O&M) appropriated funds for such purposes that the principal deems proper. Such determinations are "final and conclusive." Governing Regulation: Defense appropriations. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ8
- Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA)
- Background: Projects to assist the civilian populations of developing nations. Governing Regulation: Annual authorization/appropriation bills. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ5
- Security and Stabilization Assistance (1207)
- Background: An authority that permits DOD to provide services and transfer of defense articles and funds to the secretary of state to facilitate reconstruction, security, or stabilization assistance efforts to a foreign country. Governing Regulation: P.L. 109-163, Sec 1207, as amended. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ5
- Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Specific Funding Authorities:
- Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF)
- Background: This fund allows the Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan commander or secretary of defense's designee to provide assistance to the military and security forces of Afghanistan. It authorizes the purchase of equipment, supplies, services, training, infrastructure, facility repair, renovation, and construction activities. Governing Regulation: P.L. 109-289, DOD Instruction 5000.64, DOD Instruction 5010.14. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ8
- Coalition Support Funds (CSF)
- Background: Congressional legislation since FY02 has appropriated CSF to reimburse Pakistan, Jordan, and other key cooperating nations for logistical and military support provided to U.S. military operations. The purpose of this fund is to provide vital financial assistance to nations in the CENTCOM AOR that could not otherwise afford to support coalition operations. Governing Regulation: Annual authorization/appropriation bills, DSCA-67, DOD Instruction 3000.5. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ8
- Commander's Emergency Response Program (CERP)
- Background: The purpose of this fund is to enable local commanders in Afghanistan (and previously Iraq) to respond to urgent humanitarian relief and reconstruction requirements with programs that would immediately assist the indigenous population. Governing Regulation: Department of Defense Financial Management Regulation (DODFMR) Vol. 12, Chapter 37. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ8
- Contingency Construction Authority (CCA)
- Background: In FY04, Congress enacted a limited authority to permit the use of O&M funds for military construction-scoped projects in support of overseas combat operations. USC Code Title 10, §2805 limits O&M funded construction to $750,000 per project or $1,500,000 per project if the project corrects an urgent deficiency that affects life, health, or safety. Governing Regulation: Temporary authority renewed annually in the 2800 section of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). Original rules were established in §2808 of the FY04 NDAA, but they have been modified in each renewal. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ4
- Pakistan Counterinsurgency Capability Fund (PCCF)
- Background: The purpose of this fund is to provide the Government of Pakistan a counterinsurgency capability necessary for defending and securing the Pakistan-Afghan border region. Governing Regulation: FY 09 NDAA (P.L. 110-417), as amended. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ8
- Key Department of State Programs that Support CENTCOM
- Foreign Military Financing (FMF)
- Background: The purpose of this fund is to provide financial support for "Partnership for Peace" programs used within Central Asian countries to pay for participation in NATO-led or NATO-sponsored activities. Governing Regulation: 10 USC 1051, 2010. CENTCOM Functional OPR: CCJ5
- Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining, and Related Programs (NADR)
- Background: The purpose of this program is to provide financial and technical support to critical security and humanitarian assistance-related foreign policy objectives related to threats posed by terrorist activities, land mines, and stockpiles of excess weapons. It is also used to fund activities related to nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missiles and their associated technologies. Governing Regulation: Security Assistance Manual. Functional OPR: Department of State
(Note: All funding authorities and programs listed above are referenced from the U.S. CENTCOM Resourcing the Mission Handbook, February 2010, and apply specifically to the CENTCOM AOR. However, the following discussion and recommendations can be applied generally.)
The single most common reason for funding disruptions commanders will experience is failure to ensure that units effectively articulate substantiated requirements to the Coalition Acquisition Review Board (CARB) in a timely manner. Requirements must pass a six-step CARB process (nine steps for joint CARBs) that ensures a given requirement is a bona fide need and ensures the need is met using the appropriate funding source. Although the actual process used may vary by locality and command, the following are the basic areas of analysis:
- Cost analyst review.
- Contracting review.
- Legal review.
- CARB review.
- G-8 review.
- Final signatures.
To ensure expedient processing, it is extremely important that units complete the following components of the requirement packet as early and accurately as possible:
- Statement of justification.
- Statement of work.
- Legal review.
The best approach is to work in coordination with legal, the resource manager, and the appropriate functional OPR during the drafting process. This will ensure that the nature of the requirement is consistent with the commander's intent, the funding authority, or the program requested. This process will also ensure that the unit has included the requirement within its budget spending plan and that it is routed through the appropriate agency.