Unit Planning Considerations
This appendix is provided as a checklist to assist planners in defense support to civil authorities (DSCA) planning.
- Deployment orders (state active duty, Title 32, or Title 10).
- Personnel accountability.
- Soldier readiness processing: Medical records, shot records, insurance documents, powers of attorney, wills, etc.
- Funding. (See below.)
- Medical. (See Appendix B.)
- Mortuary affairs.
- Awards standing operating procedure.
- Intelligence preparation of the battlefield process adapted to domestic support. Adaptation includes modified combined obstacle overlay identifying no-go and slow-go routes.
- Operations security. (See Appendix J.)
- Physical security.
- Arms room.
- Define the command relationships. To whom do I report upon arrival? For whom do I work?
- Define the support relationships. Whom do I support?
- Military decisionmaking process (MDMP). Specified tasks; implied tasks; limitations; constraints; intent; purpose, methods, end state; course of action. Be imaginative in applying MDMP doctrine to DSCA mission.
- Advance party. Include signal officer and internal logistics planner.
- Battle rhythm.
- Chain of command/command organization of supported incident command.
- Points of contact for subject matter experts.
- Packing lists.
- Transportation (tactical)/convoy operations.
- Mission-related training/mission rehearsal exercise.
- Weapons qualification.
- After action reviews. (See Appendix M.)
- Risk management. (See Appendix N.)
- Liaison officers.
- Airspace command and control. (See Appendix K.)
Logistics Internal to the Supporting Unit
- Life support: Billeting, mess, rations, water, bath and laundry.
- Transportation (Administration). (See Chapter 2, "Coordinating Military Deployments on Roads and Highways: A Guide for State and Local Agencies," dated May 2005, published by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Department, accessed at http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/opssecurity/dev-mx/ updated 14 April 2009.)
- Petroleum, oil, and lubricants.
- Maintenance and recovery.
- Reception, staging, onward movement, and integration.
- Ammunition transportation and storage.
Communications and Communications Security
- Coordinate with military (Air National Guard [ANG], Army National Guard [ARNG], U.S. Coast Guard [USCG], U.S. Air Force [USAF], U.S. Navy [USN], U.S. Marine Corps [USMC]) and with local, state, regional, and federal agencies.
- Initial communications capabilities should be self-sufficient and interoperable with both first responders and local authorities. Consider wireless capability initially. When primary signal element arrives, phase out wireless network. Replace wireless cards with local area network cards or else all computers will not work.
- Plan for all means of communications: telephone (cellular or land line), radio (in all bandwidths), Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network, SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network, video, video-teleconferencing.
- Do not send equipment without operators.
- Do send qualified signal leaders to ensure operators and equipment are being used properly and profitably.
- Be prepared to provide communications equipment (cell phones, radios, base sets, etc.) to first responders. Plan for a lowest common denominator communications to locals (i.e., hand-held radio, computer, etc.).
- Plan for extended logistical support for equipment and personnel as well as unexpected requirements including generator support; maintenance of equipment; fuel requirements of vehicles, systems, and generators; and support for others' equipment (i.e. charging cell phones from your power source, charging satellite phones).
- Know the power requirements for your equipment. Do you need to bring your own power generation?
- Communications (voice, data, video) with various emergency operations centers including military (ANG, ARNG, USCG, USAF, USN, USMC), local, state, regional, or federal.
- Communications structure must be able to grow to meet future needs. What can be established initially and expanded to handle a greater demand? Small deployable packages can be sent ahead of larger deployable command posts to meet immediate requirements.
- Establish reachback capability.
- Conduct a synchronization meeting between ARNG and ANG joint communications officers at least 24 hours prior to movement.
- Realize that geography affects signal performance. A communication system that worked well at one location might not work in another.
Legal and the Rules on Use of Force
See Appendix I.
In most cases the support provided is on reimbursable basis. The defense coordinating office receives and validates a mission assignment (Federal Emergency Management Agency form 90-129). This form has a mission assignment number that should be listed on the tasking or execution orders. The mission assignment number is listed on the request for reimbursement. The mission is executed using the supporting unit's operational funds. For the military to receive reimbursement, the supporting unit must document the support provided in a memorandum to its higher headquarters.
Keep an accurate record of the mission. Items to note include:
- Record of missions performed.
- Rosters of personnel involved.
- Travel and per diem (military and civil service).
- Temporary personnel wages, travel, and per diem.
- Lodging costs.
- Transportation costs (car and bus rentals, chartered aircraft, fuel).
- Contracting costs.
- Equipment provided or operated (estimated hourly costs for operation).
- Material provided from regular stock (all classes of supply).
- Laundry expenses.
- Official or morale phone calls.
Keep receipts and other supporting documents. Supporting documents include:
- Unit orders.
- Temporary duty (TDY) orders.
- TDY payment vouchers.
- Vehicle dispatch logs including date/time/location of in-transit repairs.
- Fuel card receipts.
- Hand receipts.
- Request for supplies.
- Government credit card receipts.
- Copy of contracts.
The Department of Defense (DOD) responds to disasters to temporarily perform emergency missions that overwhelmed state and local governments cannot handle. As the emergency passes, state and local governments will once again be able to perform those response and recovery missions, and incident commanders will begin demobilizing their commands. Recognize when the unit's work is done. The final decision to conclude the DOD's activities and presence in the area of operations is made by the federal coordinating officer (FCO) and the secretary of defense.
Dangers of staying too long
- State and local governments will frequently expect DOD assistance much longer than it is actually needed.
- State and local governments may become too dependent on DOD assistance, thus impeding long-term recovery.
- If local businesses and contractors can perform the missions and tasks assigned to the DOD, the continued employment of DOD forces and equipment may be unnecessary or illegal and may rouse resentment of local citizens who may feel deprived of employment opportunities.
- The primary role of the DOD is to train, prepare for, and execute combat operations. Even a short absence from a focus on combat operations may degrade a unit's preparedness.
End state and exit strategy tactics, techniques, and procedures
- Be attentive to measures of performance, the conditions that the DOD must meet to declare mission success, and the end state.
- Make clear to state and local governments that the DOD presence will be limited.
- Agree with state and local governments on acceptable end state, usually recognized as when state and local governments can re-establish normal operations.
- Consider using commercial vendors or contractors.
- The DOD must coordinate with Northern Command and obtain the approval of the FCO before terminating disaster response operations.