English 2016 Archive

January-February 2016

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.


Letter from the Editor

2 Themes for Future Editions

4 Table of Contents

8 The Future of War: How Globalization is Changing the Security Paradigm

Capt. Johnny Sokolosky Jr., U.S. Army

The phenomenon of globalization has exponentially progressed with advances in communication and transportation technologies. The U.S. military must correspondingly reflect these changes by enhancing its capacity to project power in a future dominated by intrastate conflict, global terrorism, and urbanization. This article won second place in the 2015 DePuy writing contest.

16 Comments by Russian President Vladimir Putin to the UN General Assembly

President Vladimir Putin

This is the official transcript of a speech given by Russian President Vladimir Putin 28 September 2015 to the UN General Assembly as released by the office of the Russian president.

23 The Value of Science Is in the Foresight: New Challenges Demand Rethinking the Forms and Methods of Carrying Out Combat Operations

General of the Army Valery Gerasimov, Russian Federation Armed Forces

The chief of the General Staff of the Russian Federation Armed Forces provides a Russian perspective on the future of war.

30 Getting Gerasimov Right

Charles K. Bartles

The author offers U.S. readers background and context for Russian General of the Army Gerasimov’s “The Value of Science Is in the Foresight,” presented in this edition of Military Review.

39 The Future of Warfare against Islamic Jihadism: Engaging and Defeating Nonstate, Nonuniformed, Unlawful Enemy Combatants

Lt. Col. Allen B. West, U.S. Army, Retired

A former congressman and retired Army officer opines on the danger to the United States posed by Islamic jihadism and offers ways for U.S. leadership to face that threat.

45 Jordanian Society’s Responses to Syrian Refugees

Capt. Walter C. Haynes, U.S. Army

The influx of refugees caused by the Syrian Civil War could destabilize Jordan, an important U.S. ally in the Middle East, through a deterioration of that country’s national identity. The author provides context for the current crisis by examining a similar refugee flow of Palestinians during the 1940s and 1950s and discusses several possible outcomes.

53 Criminal Networks in Venezuela: Their Impact on Hemispheric Security

Prof. Leopoldo E. Colmenares G.

A noted Venezuelan educator and author demonstrates how the Chavista political process allowed the formation of a partnership between the Venezuelan government and illicit transnational organizations.

68 The Army, Engagement, and America’s Pacific Century

Lt. Col. Daniel Gibson, U.S. Army; Capt. Jon Cheatwood, U.S. Army

The authors argue that security force assistance activities are critical in shaping the security environment in the Indo-Asia Pacific and for achieving U.S. strategic objectives in the region.

77 The Rise of Leftist Populism—A Challenge to Democracy?

Maj. Jonathan Bissell, U.S. Army

The number of democracies that have turned to the “left” has increased significantly throughout Latin America. However, the author does not consider this trend a serious challenge to Latin American democracy and offers possible strategies for U.S. foreign policy regarding the region.

88 Action Research: A Systematic Approach to the Social Component of the Human Dimension

William Hardy; Joseph Rodman

Two social science research analysts for the U.S. Army’s Human Dimension Task Force discuss the importance of U.S. soldiers developing personal relationships with their multinational partners and members of the local communities, deeming those relationships critical to mission success.

96 Winning the Fight on Sexual Assault in our Army: Starting in Basic Combat Training

Col. Bryan Hernandez, U.S. Army

The author believes winning the battle against sexual assault begins at the point of entry into the Army, initial entry training. He offers personal lessons learned from his experience as the commander of a basic combat training brigade.

102 Lessons from Yusufiyah: From Black Hearts to Moral Education

Maj. Saythala Lay Phonexayphova, U.S. Army

The Army is attempting to learn from the 2006 massacre at Yusufiyah so that similar tragedies can be prevented. A West Point philosophy instructor offers key lessons about how the Army can teach its soldiers the moral obligations they have to other human beings, and the choices for which soldiers must be accountable.

108 Military Operations in Megacities: A Linguistic Perspective

Jeff R. Watson, PhD

The author discusses the dynamic linguistic characteristics of megacities and how an appreciation of this linguistic landscape can help military leaders plan future military operations and better understand the megacity environment.

115 REVIEW ESSAY: Base Nation and America Invades

John E. Fahey

The reviewer critiques two books that he believes catalog the tremendous influence the U.S. military has had across the world.

119 Special Book Review - Mein Kampf

George Orwell

A reprint of British author George Orwell’s 1940 review of Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf.

121 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

140 Cover 3

The return of U.S. forces to Iraq to fight against the Islamic State (IS) was highlighted by the death of Master Sgt. Joshua L. Wheeler on 22 October 2015 in Kirkuk Province, Iraq. Wheeler was killed while participating in a rescue of seventy hostages from an IS prison north of the town of Hawija where, according to Department of Defense officials, they faced “imminent mass execution.”

March-April 2016

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.


Letter from the Editor

2 Themes for Future Editions

4 Table of Contents

8 How about Winning Our Nation’s Wars Instead of Just Participating in Them?

Lt. Gen. Michael T. Flynn, U.S. Army, Retired

The Islamic State presents a clear mid- and long-term threat to the cultural and political existence of the West, according to this former director of the Defense Intelligence Agency. U.S. military and civilian leadership must have the moral and political will to do everything necessary to beat them.

16 How Daesh Uses Language in the Domain of Religion

Maj. Theresa Ford, U.S. Army

Daesh, also known as the Islamic State, uses words and ideas as weapons to motivate and recruit Muslims to its cause, but words and ideas may also be used to defeat it.

28 Beheading, Raping, and Burning: How the Islamic State Justifies Its Actions

Lt. Cmdr. David G. Kibble, British Royal Naval Reserve, Retired

A British naval officer examines how the Islamic State justifies actions that the rest of the world considers barbaric, by considering the content of its online magazine, Dabiq.

36 Clouds or Clocks: The Limitations of Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield in a Complex World

Maj. Donald P. Carter, U.S. Army

The author argues that the “intelligence preparation of the battlefield” model does not support the high degree of situational awareness necessary to succeed in contemporary operating environments and espouses a systemic approach to intelligence doctrine.

42 On Convergence, Emergence, and Complexity

Lt. Gen. Patrick M. Hughes, U.S. Army, Retired

A former director of the Defense Intelligence Agency provides his views on the challenges associated with the current and future national security environment, warning that these challenges require new strategies. He offers some potential solutions to these problems.

47 The Myth of the New Complexity

Lt. Col. Clay Mountcastle, PhD, U.S. Army, Retired

U.S. political and military leaders claim that we are now witnessing an era of unprecedented complexity with a future far more unpredictable than in the past. However, the author demonstrates that a complex operating environment is nothing new for our military.

54 Moving Beyond the MBTI: The Big Five and Leader Development

Stephen J. Gerras, PhD, and Leonard Wong, PhD

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is accepted and acclaimed throughout the Army. The authors argue that there is no scientific foundation to justify its popularity, and the Army should replace the MBTI with the “Big Five” factors as a leader development tool to analyze personalities.

58 I’m Faded

1st Lt. Robert P. Callahan Jr., U.S. Army

The author recounts his own experiences with “ethical fading” to show how a systemic integrity problem can be corrected by focusing on the truth.

60 Civil-Military Engagement Program: Enhancing the Mission of Regionally Engaged Army Forces

Maj. Christian A. Carr, U.S. Army

The author discusses the success of civil-military engagement programs conducted by the U.S. Special Operations Command and recommends their use by geographic combatant commanders in support of regionally aligned forces within their respective areas of operation.

69 Biases of the Incumbents: What If We Were Integrating Men into a Women’s Army?

Col. Karl E. Friedl, U.S. Army, Retired

A U.S. Army medical professional provides an alternate reality where male soldiers face discrimination in a women’s Army, to demonstrate how gender diversity can lead to greater military effectiveness.

76 Host-Nation Cybersecurity in Future Stability Operations

Maj. Michael Kolton, U.S. Army

Nonmilitary organizations provide a framework for future Army doctrine in the fields of cybersecurity and critical infrastructure protection. The Army should integrate such precedents for host-nation cybersecurity during stability operations.

84 A Trust-Based Culture Shift: Rethinking the Army Leadership Requirements Model in the Era of Mission Command

Maj. Gregory M. Blom, U.S. Air Force

While Army leaders espouse the principles of mission command, the Army is slow to put those principles into practice. An Air Force officer discusses the need for alignment between mission command and Army leadership doctrine, and he recommends changes to the Army leadership requirements model.

92 The Use of the Reconnaissance Squadron during Joint Forcible Entry

Capt. Mike Mobbs, U.S. Army

The author offers ideas on how to more effectively employ an airborne brigade combat team’s reconnaissance squadron during forcible entry operations.

99 The Role of the Reserve Component as an Operational Reserve

Capt. Eric J. Leib, U.S. Army Reserve

The U.S. Army Reserve Component must develop as an operational reserve in support of the Army Total Force in order to effectively overcome the challenges of budget constraints and reductions to Army end strength.

105 Building a High-Performing Unit: An Army Battalion’s Leadership Journey in Preparation for Combat in Afghanistan

Col. Kevin A. McAninch, U.S. Army

A former military intelligence battalion commander explains the unique way his unit prepared its leaders for deployment to Afghanistan by partnering with the Center for Creative Leadership to create a leader development program.

113 The Army Civilian Corps: Professionals in the Making

Col. Kim Summers, U.S. Army, Retired

The author cites Army doctrine to argue that Department of the Army civilians are indeed professionals and members of the Army Profession. This article responds to a previous Military Review article that held a differing viewpoint.

120 REVIEW ESSAY: Counterinsurgency: What the United States Learned in Vietnam, Chose to Forget, and Needs to Know Today

Col. Eric Walters, U.S. Marine Corps, Retired

The reviewer critiques a book in which the author discusses the lessons learned during the Vietnam War (but since forgotten) and how they apply to today’s counterinsurgency fight.

123 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

140 Cover 3

Capt. Florent A. Groberg, U.S. Army, retired, was awarded the Medal of Honor by President Barack Obama during a ceremony held 12 November 2015 at the White House. Groberg received the military’s highest award for valor for his actions on 8 August 2012 in Kunar Province, Afghanistan.

May-June 2016

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.


Letter from the Editor

2 Themes for Future Editions

4 Table of Contents

8 Old Generation Warfare: The Evolution—Not Revolution—of the Russian Way of Warfare

Maj. Nick Sinclair, U.S. Army

According to the author, Russia’s “new generation warfare” is just an adaptation of its traditional methods and objectives. Therefore, U.S. military professionals should reacquaint themselves with the traditional Russian way of warfare to understand its “new” approach.

17 Unconventional Art and Modern War

Maj. Randall A. Linnemann, U.S. Army

This article takes an unconventional look at how the United States and Western nations fight by comparing visual art with the art of war. It discusses cultural differences between Eastern and Western philosophies as reflected in artwork and approaches to conducting war.

27 Defining a New Security Architecture for Europe that Brings Russia in from the Cold

John Mearsheimer, PhD

In an article adapted from a speech, a political scientist discusses what he considers failings in U.S. and NATO policy regarding Europe and Russia since 2008. He describes a policy change that he believes could end the crisis in Ukraine although the U.S. turn toward Asia and the uncertain future of NATO would likely prevent its implementation.

32 Understanding Today’s Enemy: The Grand Strategists of Modern Jihad

Dr. Sebastian Gorka

An expert in irregular warfare and jihadi strategy outlines the work of Islamist thinkers whose texts on Islamic holy war against the “infidels” form the ideological foundation for a modern jihad.

40 The Particular Circumstances of Time and Place: Why the Occupation of Japan Succeeded and the Occupation of Iraq Failed

Col. David Hunter-Chester, PhD, U.S. Army, Retired

The author draws on expertise as a historian and personal experience working with the Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad to show why U.S. plans and policies for occupying any country should be tailored to the situation.

50 The AFRICOM Queen

Brian J. Dunn

The third-place winner of the 2015 General William E. DePuy Special Topics Writing Competition advocates using civilian ships as naval platforms to project U.S. Army and partner assets around the African continent. Just as the fictional “African Queen” was converted for a military mission, civilian ships could provide a relatively simple solution to U.S. Africa Command’s amphibious shipping shortage.

62 To Respond or Not to Respond: Addressing Adversarial Propaganda

Lt. Col. Jesse McIntyre III, U.S. Army, Retired

Joint and Army doctrine have very little to say about counterpropaganda. A former psychological operations officer considers this a deficiency and revisits a counterpropaganda methodology once used by Army staffs.

70 A Rigorous Education for an Uncertain Future

Col. Francis J.H. Park, U.S. Army

Army intermediate-level education falls short of the rigor needed to meet the needs of the joint force and the goals of the Army University. Four integrated recommendations could help ensure officers are intellectually prepared for the challenges they will face.

78 Precedent and Rationale for an Army Fixed-Wing Ground Attack Aircraft

Maj. John Q. Bolton, U.S. Army

An Army aviator argues that the U.S. Air Force considers close air support a high-risk, low-payoff mission, and the Army needs to take over this mission with its own organic fixed-wing aircraft.

88 Social Factors and the Human Domain

Maj. Brian Hildebrand, U.S. Army National Guard

The author proposes an approach that military planners could use to analyze the human domain, based on six interrelated social factors.

97 Force Agility through Crowdsourced Development of Tactics

Lt. Col. Chad Storlie, U.S. Army, Retired

Crowdsourcing, big data, and mobile gaming could help Army staffs achieve tactical agility through enhanced course-of-action development during the military decision-making process, according to this article that received an honorable mention in the 2015 General William E. DePuy Special Topics Writing Competition.

104 Army ROTC at One Hundred

Paul N. Kotakis

A review of milestones in the one-hundred-year history of the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps shows its enduring influence on the U.S. military and American society.

111 U.S. Cyber Force: One War Away

Maj. Matt Graham, U.S. Army

An Army strategist asserts that the military needs a greatly empowered and independent U.S. Cyber Command, coequal with the existing armed services, to focus on the cyberspace domain.

119 Advantages of Assigning Forces

Lt. Col. Heather Reed, U.S. Army

Assigning U.S. forces to combatant commands could be an effective way to balance interests as well as budgets. A combatant commander’s authority to control military operations would remain separate from a service’s authority to control administrative functions, so service leaders should not be concerned about competing chains of command, according to this author.

126 Disciples: The World War Missions of the CIA Directors Who Fought for Wild Bill Donovan

John G. Breen, PhD

The reviewer critiques a book in which the author delves into the stories behind four former directors of the Central Intelligence Agency whose careers were abruptly ended after covert action programs conducted during their respective administrations went wrong.

129 Book Reviews

148 Cover 3

The Military Review staff reluctantly bids farewell to the director of the Army Press and the editor in chief of Military Review, Col. Anna Friederich-Maggard.