English 2015 Archive

January-February 2015

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

2 Table of Contents

5 DePuy Writing Contest

6 Toward a Strong and Sustainable Defense Enterprise

Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel

The Department of Defense is investing in long-term innovation and reform that will rely on leadership in the Department and the Congress. The secretary of defense describes the challenges the Department faces and the hard choices the Congress needs to make to support the U.S. defense enterprise on its path to strength and sustainability.

15 Influence - Helmand Province 2012 Poem

16 International Security Assistance Force Joint Command 2014: The Year of Change

Lt. Gen. Joseph Anderson, U.S. Army, and Maj. Matthew M. McCreary, U.S. Army

U.S. forces are proficient at tactical-level planning, but operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have exposed weaknesses in their ability to conduct transition planning that accounts for operational and strategic objectives. Lessons learned from the International Security Assistance Force Joint Command’s operational-level planning during the drawdown in Afghanistan can help U.S. Army forces improve doctrine and training for transitions.

26 Preparing Soldiers for Uncertainty

Lt. Col. Jonathan Due, U.S. Army, Maj. Nathan Finney, U.S. Army, and Maj. Joe Byerly, U.S. Army

The Army must confront uncertainty as it prepares for current and future challenges. By creating the right mix of education and training, with uncertainty incorporated into the mix, the Army will be prepared when the time comes to fight and win the Nation’s wars.

31 A Paradigm of Dialogue and Trust: Army Mission Command Training

Mr. Robert Scaife and Lt. Col. Packard J. Mills, U.S. Army, Retired

The authors apply the six principles of mission command, making a case for collaborative, corporate leadership enabled by trust. They show that commanders need to give subordinates the opportunity to engage in critical and creative thinking.

42 Deniers of “The Truth”: Why an Agnostic Approach to Warfare is Key

Lt. Col. Grant M. Martin, U.S. Army

The Army’s religious-like belief in the technically rational paradigm has it wedded to an approach to warfare that seems intuitively effective but is largely illusory. The author describes his experiments with different operational art constructs, including incorporating operational design concepts into Special Forces qualification course planning.

52 Back to the Future: Managing Training to “Win in a Complex World”

Capt. Paul Lushenko, U.S. Army, and Maj. David Hammerschmidt, U.S. Army

Training management is as much a lost art as it is the wave of the future. The authors discuss how to restore training expertise among company and field grade officers by going “back to the future” and instilling the counsel of past master trainers.

62 The Training Brain Repository—Exercise Design Tool for Home-Station Training

Col. David G. Paschal, U.S. Army, Retired, and Maj. Alan L. Gunnerson, U.S. Army, Retired

The authors discuss how the Training Brain Repository-Exercise Design Tool facilitates a commander’s ability to increase the complexity, realism, and depth of an exercise’s live, virtual, and constructive training environment with previously impossible speed and fidelity.

71 Perfection of Process Does Not Equal Perfect Understanding

Maj. David Oakley, U.S. Army

The spirit of design and the practical approach contained in the Army design methodology are two distinct aspects of design as taught at the School of Advanced Military Studies. The author discusses the school’s approach to teaching this methodology, conveying its value for military planners and illustrating the pitfalls of allowing the practical aspects of the Army design methodology to overtake the spirit of design.

75 Networking and Generalship Across the Anglo-Pacific

Maj. Matt Cavanaugh, U.S. Army, and Maj. Nick Howard, U.S. Army

The author details research conducted to explain how the United States is at the “center of the circle” in networked relationships among senior military officers of the Australian and New Zealand militaries, with implications for the future.

82 Winning Trust Under Fire

Lt. Col. Aaron A. Bazin, U.S. Army

Influencing a nation or a cultural group depends on winning the trust of those who can influence others. The author describes how confidence-building measures can assist leaders and soldiers in improving their ability to gain trust in challenging and ambiguous operational environments.

91 Ethics and the Enhanced Soldier of the Near Future

Col. Dave Shunk, U.S. Air Force, Retired

The super soldier is on the way, but the discussion of ethics for the enhanced soldier is lacking in Army concepts and doctrine. The Army must anticipate and understand the unforeseen ethical challenges and the second- and third-order effects of technological advancements that will physically change soldiers and the way they fight.

99 Is a Greater Russia Really So Bad?

George Michael, Ph.D.

The author contends that the United States and Russia share similar threats to their long-term security and their national identities. Therefore, it would be in the best interests of both countries to resist a resumption of the Cold War, to reconcile differences, and to make a greater effort to understand their respective points of view and interests.

116 Operation Atlantic Resolve: A Case Study in Effective Communication Strategy

Jesse Granger

Clear, aggressive, and timely communication efforts played a decisive role in the success of Operation Atlantic Resolve. Specifically, this meant facilitating media coverage, providing transparency to the American public, and combating misinformation.

124 REVIEW ESSAY: A RAID TOO FAR: Operation Lam Son 719 and Vietnamization in Laos and INVASION OF LAOS, 1971: Lam Son 719

Col. Thomas E. Hanson, U.S. Army

A reader provides a review of two books on Operation Lam Son 719, the South Vietnamese Army’s 1971 invasion of Laos.

127 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

145 Cover 3

Two Vietnam War veterans, retired Command Sgt. Maj. Bennie G. Adkins and Spc. 4 Donald P. Sloat, were each awarded the Medal of Honor in a ceremony at the White House, 15 September 2014. Adkins received the medal in person from President Barack Obama. Sloat’s award was posthumous; his brother, Dr. Bill Sloat, received the medal on his behalf.

Spotlight Online Articles

Ignorance and Arrogance: Misunderstanding the Officer Personnel Management System

Lt. Col. Candice Frost, U.S. Army

Published on 5 January 2015 - In recent years, several personnel management publications espouse that the current Army personnel management system stifles growth and discourages talented officers from remaining in the service. The flaw in this argument pits a comparison of an overburdened bureaucratic Human Resources Command (HRC) to a more efficient private sector human resources management model. Both an ignorance of the current system and an arrogance of a failure to identify individual “talents” possessed by officers lead followers to concur with the biased argument that the current system remains paralyzed in bureaucracy.

 

Human Terrain and Strategic Landpower

Clifton Green and Robert Hart

Published on 26 January 2015 -

Civilians have historically deployed in support of operations during periods of conflict. The expereinces during the counterinsurgencies in Afghanistan and Iraq have shown a clear need for skills and expertise in human terrain that resides in the private sector. As the Strategic Landpower concept will see the need for such expertise at work during the early phases of operations, the deployment process of government civilians needs to evolve to streamline to make it more efficient and effective in supporting Strategic Landpower. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command’s experience with the deployment of the civilians of the Human Terrain System is instructive.

—Abstract

Deploying government civilians to support overseas contingencies has become common and necessary. Army civilians with highly sought after skill sets, are advancing the application of Landpower across the strategic, operational and tactical levels of war. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command’s (TRADOC) experience with the Human Terrain System (HTS) is a viable case study exposing substantial limitations in the way the Army and the Department of Defense (DOD) acquires, deploys, and sustains civilian employees in a theater of operations.

 

Army Values: "C-LDRSHIP": Confronting the Realities of Change

Command Sgt. Maj. Woody B. Carter, U.S. Army

Published on 23 February 2015 -

"Trust is not possible without candor, and this involves, to a certain extent, self-policing and encouraging lower-ranking officers, and enlisted soldiers to speak truth to power (or up the chain of command).”

-Profession of Arms Seminar, 20111

Back when there were no “Army Values,” we had the Professional Army Ethics that were comprised of Loyalty, Duty, Selfless Service, and Integrity. These were the core values of the Army in the mid 1980’s. They all meant the same then as they do now. Along with the Professional Army Ethics, we also had individual values that were the four C’s: Commitment, Competence, Candor, and Courage. These hopefully sound somewhat familiar, because two C’s are part of today’s certifying criteria – Competence, Commitment, and Character.

 

March-April 2015

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

2 Table of Contents

6 Continuity and Change: The Army Operating Concept and Clear Thinking About Future War

Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster, Ph.D., U.S. Army

A senior Army leader discusses how understanding key continuities in the nature of war and avoiding certain fallacies of future war will help our Army and joint force win in a complex world.

22 SHARP Realities: Perspectives in Tackling the Army’s Number One Priority

Lt. Col. Peter D. Fromm, U.S. Army, Retired

The Army must understand and change its culture to effectively combat sexual harassment and assault within its ranks, says this former Army officer and sexual harassment and assault response and prevention coordinator.

26 Can Trust Be Restored?

Keith H. Ferguson

A professional educator discusses how training and education can help reduce incidents of sexual harassment and sexual assault in the Army and restore America’s trust in its armed forces.

33 Assignment: Special Assistant to the Commander

Col. Thomas P. Galvin, U.S. Army, Retired

The author shares his experience as a special assistant to senior-level commanders in service, combined, and joint headquarters, providing insight into the duties and responsibilities commonly associated with this challenging but rewarding assignment.

39 Women in Combat: The Question of Standards

Jude Eden

A former Marine opines that standards for combat-related military specialties are appropriately high and should not be lowered to allow for the inclusion of women into those occupations.

48 Women in the Infantry: Understanding Issues of Physical Strength, Economics, and Small-Unit Cohesion

Col. Charles E. Rice, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Retired

Military members should inform the American public of the effects of placing women in infantry-type occupations. A retired Marine Corps officer argues against the Department of Defense policy that mandates permitting women in assignments with duties related to direct combat.

56 What the Female Engagement Team Experience Can Teach Us About the Future of Women in Combat

Ashley Nicolas

A former Army officer with combat experience as leader of a female engagement team examines the critical role of women on the modern battlefield and supports integrating women into U.S. combat forces.

62 The Art of Command and the Science of Control: Brigade Mission Command in Garrison and Operations

Col. Val Keaveny, U.S. Army, and Col. Lance Oskey, U.S. Army

Brigade-level commanders need practical and innovative ways to apply mission command principles. This article proposes using eight “mission command tools.”

69 Ethics, Combat, and a Soldier’s Decision to Kill

Chaplain (Maj.) Sean Wead, U.S. Army

In war, soldiers make judgments of life and death. They need a way to understand and apply moral guidance and internalize moral standards as second nature in their actions. The principles of “just war theory” can help soldiers develop a clear moral vision when they have to make a choice whether or not to kill.

82 Force and Faith in the American Experience

Col. Isaiah Wilson III, Ph.D., U.S. Army, and Maj. Lee Robinson, U.S. Army

Military leaders need to understand the complicated relationship between religion and politics, both domestically and internationally. The authors suggest that understanding the political history of religion as an integral shaper of America’s domestic and foreign policy will better equip military leaders to approach the challenges of religious extremism in strategic and campaign planning.

94 The Ignorant Counterinsurgent: Rethinking the Traditional Teacher-Student Relationship in Conflicts

Maj. Ben Zweibelson, U.S. Army

The author offers an epistemological perspective on how our military operates during counterinsurgency. He shows how the nature of the teaching and learning relationships soldiers establish when acting as military advisors and trainers can lead to success or failure.

106 The Anbar Awakening in Context … and Why It Is so Hard to Replicate

Matthew T. Penney, Ph.D.

The author proposes the Anbar Awakening be used as a template for developing counterinsurgency programs elsewhere as long as the differences in culture and situational context in such efforts are accounted for. The author provides an analysis of the Awakening and explains how its lessons can be applied in the future.

118 Retaking a District Center: A Case Study in the Application of Village Stability Operations

Lt. Cmdr. Daniel R. Green, Ph.D., U.S. Navy Reserve

An expert on stability operations in the Middle East and Central Asia offers a unique perspective on the district of Chora in southern Afghanistan and explains how and why stability operations in that area were successful.

125 Air-Sea Battle and the Danger of Fostering a Maginot Line Mentality

Lt. Col. Raymond Millen, U.S. Army, Retired

Air-Sea Battle doctrine downplays the role of ground forces in the conduct of decisive operations, subordinating it to air and sea power. The author uses the example of the French Maginot Line to demonstrate the flaw in this reasoning: that national security can be assured by a “silver bullet.”

133 REVIEW ESSAY: Killing From the Inside Out: Moral Injury and Just War

Lt. Col. Douglas A. Pryer, U.S. Army

The author provides an analysis of a book that examines the psychological effects of combat through the lens of “just war theory.”

135 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

145 Cover 3

The Citadel - Poem

Spotlight Online Articles

The Leader’s Regional Advise and Assist Course (LRAAC): Preparing Leaders to Win in a Complex World

Lt.Col. G.F. Deimel, U.S. Army; Maj. Duane Bailey, U.S. Army; and Maj. Lloyd Warren, U.S. Army

Published on 18 March 2015 -

“The Army cannot predict who it will fight, where it will fight, and with which coalition it will fight. To win in a complex world, Army forces must provide the Joint force with multiple options, integrate the efforts of multiple partners, operate across multiple domains, and present our enemies and adversaries with multiple dilemmas.”

-General David Perkins
Forward, The US Army Operating Concept: Win in a Complex World, 2020-2040
7 October 2014

Today our Army faces as much uncertainty as any point in time since the close of the Korean War. Our senior leaders are working to address a multitude of threats from Afghanistan to Africa to Eastern Europe even, it seems, as these threats transform before us. At the same time the U.S. Army faces a dwindling budget and reduced force structure which could increasingly limit the resources available to meet these threats.

 

Shoot, Move, Communicate: Thinking Through Cyber's Role in Ground Combat

Frank J. Cilluffo and Joseph R. Clark, Ph.D.

Published on 1 April 2015 - Shoot, move, communicate. Ground combat can be distilled to these three tasks. Regardless of any weapon’s degree of sophistication or the complexity of any scheme of maneuver — battlefield victory is a product of how well individuals, units, and armies shoot, move, and communicate. These actions underpin a military’s ability to destroy enemy formations, secure objectives, and set the conditions for peace.

 

The Applicability of Design to Strategic Art

Maj. Jeffery T. Burroughs, U.S. Army

Published on 24 April 2015 - Strategic art is critical to the defense of the national interests of the United States and the continued prosperity of the nation. It is a concept that is as equally difficult to define as it is to practice. Three significant assumptions underpin the concept of strategic art. First, the strategic art concept is predicated on the assumption that the national interests are clearly understood and that all parties involved in strategy formulation hold a common representation.

 

May-June 2015

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Themes for Future Editions

4 Table of Contents

8 Future Megacity Operations—Lessons from Sadr City

Maj. Christopher O. Bowers, U.S. Army

A veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom opines that what the Army saw in Sadr City, Iraq, offers a glimpse into what it might encounter in future megacities. The author provides lessons from Army operations in Sadr City and applies them to potential future urban operational environments.

17 Identifying and Retaining the Army’s Best Midgrade Officers

Brig. Gen. Ronald Kirklin, U.S. Army

The future of the Army depends on having a strong and robust group of midgrade officers. The current commandant of the Quartermaster School discusses how the Army can retain the best midgrade leaders through increased access to broadening assignments, customized and compassionate mentorship, and engaged leaders adapting to strategic changes.

23 Operational Resilience in the Infantry Rifle Platoon

1st Lt. Don H. Gomez, U.S. Army, and Staff Sgt. Samuel S. Heer, U.S. Army

Junior leaders offer proven techniques for the successful integration of resilience training at the small-unit level.

29 Psychologically Fit to Lead: Behavioral Health Initiatives for the Reserve Officer Training Corps

Maj. Gregory C. Mabry Jr., Psy.D., LCSW, U.S. Army

ROTC cadets and cadre with recent combat deployments may be ill prepared for reintegration into life in the United States. A mental health professional describes the ramifications of this problem and offers potential solutions.

33 Great Results Through Bad Leaders: The Positive Effects of Toxic Leadership

Maj. Kane David Wright, Australian Army

A MacArthur Leadership Award-winning author uses a real-world example from the Australian army to demonstrate how toxic leadership actually enhanced, rather than undermined, organizational performance.

40 The Path to Mission Command

Maj. Andrew J. Whitford, U.S. Army

Mission command and leader development are interdependent; mission command is how we fight, and leader development is part of how we prepare to fight. The author opines that the successful application of mission command is the product of leader development in a peacetime environment through education, training, and experience.

48 Stryker Packages Allow the Army to Achieve Its Rapid Deployment Goal

Maj. Daniel Hall, U.S. Army

Stryker units provide the Army with survivable, lethal, and mobile ground forces that can rapidly respond to any situation. The author describes the recent successful integration of Stryker elements into the global response force and offers lessons learned for the future.

56 1930s German Doctrine: A Manifestation of Operational Art

Tal Tovy, Ph.D.

An Israeli professor argues that German blitzkrieg doctrine was a manifestation of the operational level of war. He asserts that operational thinking and an emphasis on joint operations were evident in German pre-World War II thinking and practiced during campaigns to conquer Western Europe.

65 The Advisor and the Brigade Combat Team: Toward an Enduring Solution for an Enduring Requirement

Lt. Col. Jeremy T. Gwinn, U.S. Army

The author explains how the brigade combat team is the proper formation of choice for security force assistance missions. He draws from his first-hand experience with security force assistance operations in Afghanistan to highlight the need for improved career management of Army advisors.

71 Army Civilians and the Army Profession

Lt. Col. Robert Hynes, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired

The author holds that while they fill an important role, Department of the Army civilians do not, by definition, meet the requirements to be considered members of the Army Profession.

78 It’s Not About Trust; It’s About Thinking and Judgment

Lt. Col. Joe Doty, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired, and Master Sgt. Jeff Fenlason, U.S. Army

84 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: Readers respond to previous articles.

87 REVIEW ESSAY: I Heard My Country Calling: A Memoir

Lt. Col. Tom J. Tracy, U.S. Army, Retired

A review of the memoir of James Webb—author, former U.S. senator, secretary of the Navy, and combat Marine. The book focuses on Webb’s time as a “military brat” and discusses the emergence of a whole new societal sector—the American military family.

90 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

109 Cover 3

The U.S. Army War College seeks papers for a conference on “American Use of Strategic Landpower since 9/11” to be held at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, from 2-4 December 2015.

Spotlight Online Articles

Strategic Level Advising in Afghanistan

Lt. Col. Keith A. McKinley, U.S. Army

Published on 11 May 2015 - On Christmas Day 2014 at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, President Barack Obama told a gathering of troops at a mess hall that U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan will end within a month.1 However, the United States has committed a sizable troop presence in the country for the next two years to continue to train and support the Afghan government.2

July-August 2015

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Themes for Future Editions

4 Table of Contents

8 Leader Development and Talent Management: The Army Competitive Advantage

Gen. Raymond T. Odierno, U.S. Army

The Army chief of staff provides an overview of sweeping changes being made to the Army’s leader development programs at all levels and the strategic philosophy behind them.

16 The Coming Educational Revolution in the Army

Senator Pat Roberts

The distinguished senator from Kansas demonstrates his support for The Army University concept in the first of three articles that explain the intent behind this significant change to the Army education system.

18 The Army University: Educating Leaders to Win in a Complex World

Lt. Gen. Robert B. Brown, U.S. Army

In the second article of The Army University series, the commander of the U.S. Army Combined Arms Center explains in detail why the Army must transition to a university system, the advantageous changes that will occur with implementation of The Army University, and the benefits it will bring for our soldiers, Army civilians, and the Army as an institution.

29 What Will The Army University Mean for Enlisted Soldiers?

Command Sgt. Maj. Micheal Clowser, U.S. Army

The Army University is examined through the eyes of the senior enlisted leader of the Combined Arms Center–Education in the final article in this series. He explains the ramifications and benefits of the upcoming transition to a university system with a perspective specifically oriented toward our enlisted soldiers.

33 Developing Leaders

Col. Frank Wenzel, U.S. Army, Retired

The author explains the importance of Army leader development, identifies the attributes and competencies future leaders will need, and discusses how the Army plans and manages leader development through training, education, and experience.

42 Developing Army Enterprise Leaders

Col. Charles D. Allen, U.S. Army, Retired, and Col. George J. Woods, PhD, U.S. Army, Retired

The authors describe what they consider the shortfalls of U.S. Army senior leader development and explain how to properly develop officers capable of leading large and complex organizations, processes, and systems to produce the capabilities that will achieve mission success in future operations.

50 Mentoring, Coaching, and Counseling: Toward a Common Understanding

Col. Jim Thomas, U.S. Army, Retired, and Lt. Col. Ted Thomas, PhD, U.S. Army, Retired

The terms mentoring, coaching, and counseling have different meanings for each of the military services, but the desired results are not that different. The authors explain how mentoring, coaching, and counseling are at the heart of leader development and are key instruments for improving organizations.

58 Caution Required: Multirater Feedback in the Army

Maj. Gregory G. Lee, U.S. Army

The Army should be cautious and very deliberate if it implements multirater feedback into promotion or selection boards. In this article, a General MacArthur Leadership Award runner-up, the writer examines the multirater feedback assessment tool.

68 Army Leadership and the Communication Paradox

Maj. Christopher M. Ford, U.S. Army

A General MacArthur Leadership Award runner-up shows why the Army must acknowledge the importance of effective communication, integrate the teaching of communication skills—writing and speaking—throughout the Army officer education system, and elevate the role of effective communication in the exercise of mission command.

75 Operation United Assistance: The Initial Response—Setting the Conditions in the Theater

Maj. Gen. Darryl Williams, U.S. Army Lt. Col. Matthew D. Koehler, U.S. Army Lt. Col. Charles C. Luke II, U.S. Army, and Maj. Christopher O. Bowers, U.S. Army

The commander of U.S. Army Africa demonstrates the importance of Army Service component commands and provides valuable lessons learned from his unit’s experiences during a recent humanitarian assistance mission to combat the Ebola outbreak in western Africa.

84 The First Regionally Aligned Force: Lessons Learned and the Way Ahead

Capt. Cory R. Scharbo, U.S. Army

The author presents lessons learned from the first regionally aligned force to support U.S. Africa Command. His intent is to provide a base of knowledge to assist other units preparing for similar missions and to recommend changes to the process for supporting future regionally aligned force deployments to Africa.

94 Operational Art by the Numbers

Lt. Col. David S. Pierson, U.S. Army, Retired

Understanding operational art and its associated elements can be challenging because they focus much more on art than science. The author explains the concept of operational art with a unique demonstration of its application to a common military activity—the permanent change of station move.

102 The Role of Iraqi Tribes after the Islamic State’s Ascendance

Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, PhD, and Sterling Jensen, PhD

The authors provide a detailed discussion of the important role Sunni tribes have played in recent Iraqi history and their role in the current battle with the Islamic State.

111 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: Readers respond to previous articles.

113 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

129 Cover 3

On the Need for Thinking Soldiers. In England there has long been an idea prevalent in the minds of many persons that the soldier should be a species of man distinct from the rest of the community. He should be purely and simply a soldier, ready to knock down upon word of command being duly given for that purpose, but knowing nothing of the business of building up.

September-October 2015

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Themes for Future Editions

4 Table of Contents

8 Globally Integrated Operations in the Horn of Africa through the Principles of Mission Command

Maj. Gen. Wayne W. Grigsby Jr., U.S. Army; Col. Todd Fox, U.S. Army; Lt. Col. Matthew F. Dabkowski, U.S. Army; Cmdr. Andrea N. Phelps, U.S. Navy

The commander of the Combined Joint Task Force–Horn of Africa created solutions for complex problems by applying Army mission command principles to theater security cooperation missions. The task force adapted its organization in unusual ways to conduct unified action effectively with many diverse partners.

19 The Civil Engagement Spectrum: A Tool for the Human Domain

Lt. Col. James N. Krakar, U.S. Army Reserve

The author demonstrates that conventional units have a capability gap regarding civil engagement and proposes a framework he calls the civil engagement spectrum as a way to fill that gap.

27 NATO’s Approach to Irregular Warfare: Protecting the Achilles’ Heel

Lt. Col. Christian Jeppson, Swedish Special Forces; Capt. Sampsa Heilala, Finnish Special Forces; Capt. Jan Weuts, Belgian Special Forces; Master Sgt. Giovanni Santo Arrigo, Italian Special Forces

Four European special operations service members discuss the need for NATO to use a bottom-up approach during irregular warfare conflicts to establish a governance authority considered legitimate by the populace of a nation within a reasonable timeframe. They opine that special operations forces are the key to success in this endeavor.

40 The Theory and Practice of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency

Bernard B. Fall, PhD

Based on a 1964 lecture, this article still has relevance today. The author provides numerous examples of revolutionary wars, and discusses the challenges inherent in revolutionary war and the need for continued evolution of counterinsurgency tactics and doctrine.

49 Interpersonal Engagement: The Indispensable Warrior Skill

Lt. Col. Robert M. Hill, EdD, U.S. Army, Retired

Face-to-face, interpersonal engagement can be instrumental in successful mission accomplishment. Soldiers and leaders must become experts in engagement skills to effectively operate in the human domain.

57 Religious Engagement and the Seventh Warfighting Function: Time to Stop, Listen, and Engage

Maj. Theresa Ford, JD, U.S. Army

The Army’s seventh warfighting function—engagement—proposes ways to ensure soldiers work with partners and populations in a culturally attuned manner. The author describes how she conducted religious engagement to build relationships while serving with the Afghanistan/Pakistan Hands Program.

65 Army Translator and Interpreter Companies: A Wasted Resource

Capt. Jessica L. Cook, U.S. Army

The former commander of an Army translator and interpreter company discusses problems with the training and utilization of soldiers in this military occupational specialty and provides recommendations to maximize the effectiveness of this critical asset.

70 The Case for a National Information Strategy

Col. Dennis Murphy, U.S. Army, Retired; Lt. Col. Daniel Kuehl, PhD, U.S. Air Force, Retired

The United States lacks a coherent, comprehensive national information strategy, according to two retired military officers. They discuss how a national strategy must consider connectivity, content, and cognition in the information environment in order to enable accomplishment of U.S. strategic objectives.

84 Commanders and Communication

Lt. Col. David Hylton, U.S. Army

Effective communication can set the conditions for future operations and may be able to prevent future conflict. Commanders must establish a communication mindset and empower subordinates to communicate.

93 Public Opinion: A Center of Gravity Leaders Forget

Col. Steve Boylan, U.S. Army, Retired

A center of gravity can be moral as well as physical, and public support is an essential element of the moral center of gravity. Military leaders must consider the impact of public opinion in operational planning and execution.

106 Effective Writing for Army Leaders: The Army Writing Standard Redefined

Desirae Gieseman

The old definition of effective Army writing is ineffective for helping writers become skilled thinkers and communicators. Research on the nature of writing, learning, and functional communication show why the old standard does not work, and it points to a better way.

119 Religious Participation: The Missing Link in the Ready and Resilient Campaign

Chaplain (Maj.) Brian Koyn, U.S. Army

Participation in religious activities can build and sustain personal as well as unit readiness and resilience. A former Ranger regiment chaplain provides a compelling argument for such participation as part of the Army’s Ready and Resilient Campaign.

130 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: Readers respond to previous articles.

133 BOOK REVIEW ESSAY: God is Not Here

Lt. Col. Douglas A. Pryer, U.S. Army

A soldier’s struggle with torture, trauma, and the moral injuries of war. A review of the book written by Bill Russell Edmonds.

136 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

153 Cover 3

Sgt. Henry L. Johnson and Sgt. William Shemin, veterans of World War I, were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor by President Barack Obama during a ceremony held on 2 June 2015 at the White House. Johnson’s award was accepted on his behalf by Command Sgt. Maj. Louis Wilson, the New York National Guard’s senior enlisted advisor. Elsie Shemin-Roth and Ina Bass, the daughters of William Shemin, accepted Shemin’s award.

November-December 2015

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Themes for Future Editions

4 Table of Contents

8 The Urban Individual: Unassailable Source of Power in Twenty-First Century Armed Conflicts

Lt. Col. Erik A. Claessen, Belgian Army

Winner of the 2015 Gen. William E. DePuy Combined Arms Center writing competition. The author shows that popular support may be a greater source of power than military might in urban conflicts.

16 Military Communication Strategies Based on How Audiences Meld Media and Agendas

Col. Donald L. Shaw, PhD, U.S. Army, Retired; Thomas C. Terry, PhD; Milad Minooie, MA

Army leaders risk failing to lead their organizations if they do not adapt their communication strategies to the media their intended audiences use and to the issues those audiences care about. This article provides five recommendations that can help Army leaders use traditional and new media to communicate more effectively.

29 Six Weeks in 1914: Campaign Execution and the Fog of War—Historical Lessons for the Military Professional

John J. McGrath

The author analyzes the First Battle of the Marne as an example of the ineffective application of mission command. He draws parallels between aspects of mission command as used by the Germans in World War I and those used by armies in the modern era.

43 Comments on “Cavalry Tanks”

Maj. George S. Patton, Jr., U.S. Army

The republishing of George Patton’s 1921 commentary from The Cavalry Journal demonstrates that internal discussion and debate among junior and field grade officers on issues of contemporary military concern are not new to the Army.

45 The Lights and the Heavies: Adapting Cavalry Branch to the Demands of Force 2025 and Beyond

1st Lt. Matthew McGoffin, U.S. Army

A junior officer examines the role of cavalry in future unified land operations and offers recommendations on how to change the structure and employment of cavalry units to meet future challenges.

55 Balancing Air and Missile Defense to Better Support Maneuver

Capt. Vincent R. Wiggins Jr., U.S. Army

The Army prioritizes static-engagement-air-and-missile-defense assets at the expense of aggressive maneuver tempo, according to this analysis. The author makes a case for incorporating nonstatic-engagement-air-and-missile-defense assets such as modernized Avengers at the brigade combat team level.

64 Countering the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Threat

Col. Matthew T. Tedesco, U.S. Army

The joint force needs a systematic approach to counter unmanned aircraft systems. How can it ensure the services are adequately trained, equipped, and organized to defend against this increasing threat? Recommendations are provided.

70 Drones, Honor, and War

Cora Sol Goldstein, PhD

Violence in war is often deemed acceptable, and even honorable, when direct confrontation is involved, and when opposing forces are assumed to share equivalent risks. Accordingly, some consider the use of drones in warfare as dishonorable and cowardly.

77 Air Force Leaders Take Note: The Army is Changing

Lt. Col. Jason Earley, U.S. Air Force

An Air Force officer discusses how planned changes in Army structure, size, and doctrine will effect the Air Force and its leaders.

85 The United States Army’s Secret to Success: Capitalizing on the Human Dimension to Enhance Its Combat Capabilities

Maj. Jonathan Bissell, U.S. Army; Command Sgt. Maj. Carlos Olvera, U.S. Army

Much of the success of the U.S. Army is attributable to effective employment of its career noncommissioned officers. Encouraging foreign nations to adopt U.S. Army techniques for developing and using an NCO corps may be an essential component for their militaries’ success.

92 An All-Volunteer Force for Long-Term Success

Col. Michael Runey, U.S. Army; Col. Charles Allen, U.S. Army, Retired

Diverging military, societal, and political forces make the all-volunteer force’s viability untenable without fundamental change. The authors use an operational design approach to frame the environment, define the strategic problem, and outline solutions to issues of enlisted recruitment and retention.

101 Leading Soldiers with—Not Primarily through—Communication Technology

Maj. Andrew B. Stipp, U.S. Army

Interpersonal relationships should be enhanced by the use of technology, but technology must never be allowed to supplant those relationships. Face-to-face communication, or other active communication techniques, should be the preferred means for leaders to understand their soldiers’ values, principles, and emotions.

108 A Way to Teach Critical Thinking Skills so Learners Will Continue Using Them in Operations

Marcus Griffin, PhD; Lt. Col. Rob B. McClary, PhD, U.S. Marine Corps, Retired

Even the most popular critical thinking classes do not necessarily lead to critical thinking on the job. Former Human Terrain System trainers describe an integrative model for ensuring learners continue to apply critical thinking in complex situations.

119 A Good Death: Mortality and Narrative in Army Leadership

Maj. Dan Leard, U.S. Army

Leaders should understand the consequences and shortcomings of using immortality narratives to manage their soldiers’ fear of death during combat. The author examines the flaws in four narratives and provides another—professionalism—as the most effective mechanism to foster courage, resolve, and resilience.

125 Order in Chaos: The Memoirs of General of Panzer Troops and Fighting the Cold War: A Soldier’s Memoir

Frederick A. Baillergeon

Two memoirs highlight the significant achievements of officers who are sometimes overlooked by historians. This essay reviews Hermann Balck’s Order in Chaos: The Memoirs of General of Panzer Troops Hermann Balck and John Galvin’s Fighting the Cold War: A Soldier’s Memoir.

128 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

144 Annual Index

152 Cover 3

When you see the headlines, the commentaries, the talk shows, the social media bloviating, and hear the wonks and pundits of all shapes and sizes wringing their hands and gnashing their teeth over the proposed personnel and budgetary cuts to the United States military