English 2014 Archive

January-February 2014

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Table of Contents

4 Virtual Influence: Leveraging Social Media as a Leadership Tool

Maj. Jana K. Fajardo, U.S. Army

A MacArthur writing contest winning author examines concepts and objectives of leadership and the phenomenon of social media.

15 Preferring Copies with No Originals: Does the Army Training Strategy Train to Fail?

Maj. Ben E. Zweibelson, U.S. Army

A CTC trainer argues that the opposing forces at combat training centers need to better replicate U.S. rivals.

26 A Tale of Two Districts: Beating the Taliban at Their Own Game

Lt. Cmdr. Daniel R. Green, Ph.D., U.S. Navy

A tribal and political engagement officer discusses local security through tribal groups trained by coalition forces.

32 States, Societies, Resistance, and COIN

Samuel Abrams

America faces important questions of social order and state building in the Middle East and elsewhere.

43 Of Burning Platforms and Champions

Cmdr. William Hines, U.S. Navy Reserve

A Navy commander suggests that we are failing in our goal of transferring security responsibility to a capable ANSF.

50 Militarization of U.S. Foreign Policy in Africa: Strategic Gain or Backlash?

Kofi Nsia-Pepra, Ph.D., LLM

An expert in international human rights law argues that America should formalize good relations with all African states.

60 The Fourth Revolution: Hyper-Learning

Lt. Gen. Frederic J. (Rick) Brown, Ph.D. U.S. Army, Retired

Gen. Brown follows up his previous article on preparing leaders to support rebuilding with a discussion on "hyper-learning."

68 Lessons of a Coalition Partner in Afghanistan: 2002-2013

Lt. Col. Sholto Stephens, New Zealand Army

A New Zealand Army officer shares pragmatic lessons from New Zealand Defense Force operations in Afghanistan and calls for improvements in military education and training to account for the new reality.

74 Harmony in Battle: Training the Brigade Combat Team for Combined Arms Maneuver

Col. Michael R. Fenzel and Lt. Col. Shane Morgan, U.S. Army

Two senior commanders offer a training plan to build proficiency from the bottom up.

82 Creeping Death: Clausewitz and Comprehensive Counterinsurgency

Capt. Brett Friedman, U.S. Marine Corps

A Marine officer calls for the U.S. military to move beyond the simplistic population-versus-enemy dichotomy regarding counterinsurgency.

90 Managing Risk in Today’s Army

Maj. Brendan Gallagher, U.S. Army

The author discusses the importance of sensible risk taking.

97 REVIEW ESSAY: The Lessons of "The Surge"

Lt.Col. Douglas A. Pryer, U.S. Army

101 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

114 Letters

116 DePuy Writing Contest 2014

117 Cover 3

Captain William D. Swenson distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life while serving as an embedded advisor to the Afghan National Border Police, Task Force Phoenix, Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan in support of 1st Battalion, 32nd Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kunar Province, Afghanistan, on 8 September 2009.

Spotlight Online Articles

Lessons from Advising in Afghanistan

1st Lt. Iain J. Cruickshank, U.S. Army

Published on 12 February 2014 - Since the first major combat operations in Afghanistan, the question of how and when the war will end has loomed in the minds of conscientious Americans. Now, as the conflict begins its end stages, the moment has arrived. How will coalition forces transfer the security of Afghanistan to its own security forces as effectively as possible?

March-April 2014

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Table of Contents

4 Strengths-Based Leadership Theory and Development of Subordinate Leaders

Melinda Key-Roberts, Ph.D.

A research psychologist examines the results of a study through the lens of strengths-based leadership theory to reach some common-sense conclusions about leader development.

14 Developing Trustworthy Commissioned Officers

Lt. Col. David B. Cushen, U.S. Army; Lt. Col. Joseph P. Doty, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired; and Col. Patrick A. Toffler, U.S. Army, Retired

The authors define what it means to be a leader of character and discuss ways to develop such leaders in each of the Army’s sources of commission.

23 Evil on the Horizon

Maj. Matthew M. McCreary, U.S. Army

An interagency fellow’s experience on the Department of State’s Interagency Man-Portable Air Defense Systems Task Force provides the backdrop for an examination of the importance of interagency cooperation in achieving national security objectives.

29 Extending SHARP Best Practices

Lt. Col. Heidi A. Urben, Ph.D., U.S. Army

The author questions the lack of published lessons learned on the prevention of sexual harassment and assault, and provides considerations to brigade-and-below leadership for SHARP program implementation.

33 Is Experience the Missing Link in Junior Officer Development?

Maj. Adam Wojack, U.S. Army

Of the three pillars of leader development described in the Army Leader Development Strategy, experience is the most out of balance when applied to the Army’s most junior officers. Winner of the 2010 General Douglas MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition.

42 The Syrian Crisis from a Neighbor’s Perspective

Karen Kaya

A Middle East and Turkey analyst for the Foreign Military Studies Office provides insight into the impact of the Syrian crisis on Turkey, the Middle East, and the international community.

51 The Criticality of Captains’ Education

Lt. Col. Keith R. Beurskens, U.S. Army, Retired

In an update to an article published previously in the Nov-Dec 2010 edition of Military Review, the author discusses the continued importance of the Captain’s Career Course to the effective development of commissioned officers in support of the Army Leader Development Strategy.

55 Ethics Education of Military Leaders

A Edward Major, Esq

An attorney explains the importance of ethics education for senior military leaders and argues for its inclusion in the curricula of the military’s senior service colleges.

61 Improving Leader Development in the Operational Domain

Lt. Col. Kevin M. Kreie, U.S. Army

A discourse on the significance of the three learning domains in the Army's Leader Development Model and the inadequacy of leader development in the operational domain.

66 Leading Structured Organization in the Dynamic Information Age

Lt. Col. Benjamin A. Ring, U.S. Army; Lt. Col. Richard K. Brown Jr., U.S. Air Force; Col. Lawrence E. Howard, U.S. Army Reserve; Cmdr. Peter R. Van Ness, U.S. Coast Guard

A group of officers provides a discussion on changes in information technology, the resulting global cultural changes, and what the Army must do to adapt and succeed in the 21st Century Information Age.

73 INSIGHT : A Reply to Arnold R. Isaacs’ Review Essay, "Remembering Vietnam"

William Lloyd Stearman, Ph.D.

79 Letters

81 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

92 DePuy Writing Contest 2014

93 Cover 3

Leadership is the process of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to accomplish the mission and improve the organization (ADP 6-22).

Spotlight Online Articles

US Marshals Service: A Model for Interagency Cooperation

Maj. Matthew W. Graham, U.S Army

Published on 7 March 2014 - Each year, the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) arrests a stunning number of fugitives. With just under 4,000 deputies, the entire nationwide agency is approximately the size of a typical U.S. Army Brigade Combat Team (BCT).1 Yet despite this manpower limitation, the USMS located and arrested over 120,000 fugitives in fiscal year 2012, clearing over 153,000 warrants.

 

The Case for Warrior Business Executives in the Army

Lt. Col. Jason Roncoroni, U.S. Army

Published on 4 April 2014 - Across the Army, resources are shrinking, but strategic responsibilities are not. The last thirteen years of reset, train/ready, and deploy groomed our junior and mid-grade officers to become effective tactical leaders and managers for combat. Unfortunately, many of these learned qualities and behaviors will not help the Army adapt to a cost-centric culture of increased monetary accountability and process efficiency.

 

Change in Order to Stay “Army Strong”

Lt. Gen. Thomas Spoehr, U.S. Army

Published on 18 April 2014 -

“The Army must change; this is a strategic and fiscal reality.”

—Secretary of the Army Top Priorities, 15 Oct 2013

The Army has entered a financial crisis, no less severe than the major recession that engulfed the United States from 2007-2010. Sequestration, as imposed by the Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011, and modified by the Bipartisan Budget Act (BBA) of 2013 is anticipated to dramatically reduce our fiscal year (FY)14 expected funding down to $122 billion, down $7 billion dollars from our projections of only 18 months ago.

May-June 2014

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Table of Contents

4 Considerations for Offensive Cyberspace Operations

Lt. Cmdr. Kallie D. Fink, U.S. Navy; Maj. John D. Jordan, U.S. Marine Corps; and Maj. James E. Wells, U.S. Air Force

Integrating offensive cyberspace operations into the joint targeting cycle presents distinct challenges for commanders and planners. Officers from three services provide considerations and recommendations for commanders to take full advantage of this combat multiplier.

12 Responsibility Practices in Robotic Warfare

Deborah G. Johnson, Ph.D., and Merel E. Noorman, Ph.D.

The authors discuss the issues of responsibility and accountability inherent to the use of autonomous robotic systems. They espouse the incorporation of responsibility practices during the development of new technologies.

22 Failed Cyberdefense: The Environmental Consequences of Hostile Acts

Jan Kallberg, Ph.D., and Rosemary A. Burk, Ph.D.

Defending against cyberattacks is more than just protecting computer networks. The authors discuss weaknesses in our cyberdefense and convey a warning that cyberattacks could cause long-term environmental damage.

26 The Utility of Cyberpower

Lt. Col. Kevin L. Parker, U.S. Air Force

The Department of Defense considers cyberspace an operational domain with distinctive characteristics that present advantages and corresponding limitations. An Air Force officer explains the importance of integrating cyberspace operations in a strategic context and discusses the way ahead.

34 Beyond Cocaine Cowboys: Looking at Security in Latin America from a Different Perspective

Maj. Gen. Frederick S. Rudesheim, U.S. Army, and Maj. Michael L. Burgoyne, U.S. Army

The authors draw on their extensive regional expertise to show that U.S. security cooperation policy in Latin America needs to extend beyond the fight against drug trafficking.

38 Cybersecurity: It Isn’t Just for Signal Officers Anymore

Lt. Col. D. Bruce Roeder, U.S. Army, Retired

The author discusses a variety of cyberthreats and how the United States should combat them. He shows why cybersecurity is everyone’s business.

43 Network-Centric Warfare and the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Hierarchy

Col. Harry D. Tunnell IV, U.S. Army, Retired

Integration of a data-information-knowledge-wisdom hierarchy into a network-centric-capable information system framework can enhance leader decision making in combat.

51 Is There Room for Peace Studies in a Future-Centered Warfighting Curriculum?

Maj. Thomas G. Matyók, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired; Cathryne L. Schmitz, Ph.D., MSW

The authors believe peace and conflict studies should be integrated into the Army’s professional education curriculum. They show how this approach to educating soldiers could provide the skills to resolve conflicts through nonviolent conflict management.

56 Medical Operations in Counterinsurgency: Joining the Fight

Maj. David S. Kauvar, M.D., U.S. Army; Maj. Tucker A. Drury, M.D., U.S. Air Force

Two military physicians present lessons learned in Afghanistan for the successful employment of U.S. medical units during counterinsurgency operations.

62 Persistent Conflict and Special Operations Forces

Lt. Col. Phillip W. Reynolds, U.S. Army

Special operations forces and an interagency mindset are the keys to success in low-intensity and irregular wars, especially in this time of reduced resources and war weariness, according to one civil affairs officer.

70 INSIGHT: COINvasion? Korengal and Weygal Valleys Post-Mortem

Maj. David H. Park, U.S. Army

A veteran of five combat tours gives an enlightening discourse on the strategic and human terrain in a remote region of Afghanistan. His analysis demonstrates the errors of the U.S. approach there and offers strategies for operating more effectively in the region.

78 REVIEW ESSAY - THE GUNS AT LAST LIGHT: The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945

Col. A M Roe, Ph.D., British Army

83 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

95 DePuy Writing Contest 2014

96 Cover 3

Twenty-four veterans from three wars were awarded the nation’s highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor, during a ceremony at the White House on 18 March 2014.

Spotlight Online Articles

Lessons From The Long War: A Soldier-Focused, Data Driven Analysis of Retention

Col. Thomas M. Zubik, U.S. Army; Samantha M. Hack, PhD, MSW; Leah Cleeland, MSW; Col. Paul C. Hastings, Retired, U.S. Army

Published on 7 May 2014 - Political debate continues over how the United States can maintain military readiness and win its next war, in light of sequestration, declining budgets, and personnel cutbacks. The National Guard (NG) and the Army Reserve (AR) as part of the total force must also adapt to the realities of fiscal constraint while bearing the weight of being an operational force. The standard of being an operational force for the NG/AR was difficult to achieve before sequestration. It is much tougher now, for there is no money to buy readiness.

 

Military Operations in Kosovo and the Danger of ‘Mission Creep’

Capt. Michael A. Robinson, U.S. Army

Published on 28 May 2014 - As the Army enters into a time of self-reflection, doctrinal re-assessment, and fiscal re-prioritization, the most pressing existential questions that operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have created, are the implications of long-term military operations and their relationship with the political goals articulated by civilian leadership. There is no need to explain that a disparity between these two envisioned end-states, the military and the civilian, can force catastrophic deviations from the original mission.

July-August 2014

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Table of Contents

5 Cadets in Strategic Landpower: Managing the Talent We Need

Lt. Col. Adrian T. Bogart III, U.S. Army, and Capt. J.D. Mohundro, U.S. Army

The Army must focus on attracting and developing leaders as early as possible. Their education, experiences, and training during college will prepare cadets to apply strategic landpower as officers.

12 On Strategic Understanding: Teaching Strategy from the Ground Up

Maj. Matthew Cavanaugh

The author contends that junior leaders must develop strategic understanding to become effective leaders and that mission command nests with this concept.

19 Defining Force 2025

Lt. Col. Brandon Smith, U.S. Army

Force 2025 will guide Army development and innovation, providing the means to maintain a force that can stay regionally engaged to prevent and shape while maintaining the capability to win.

22 Strategic Leadership for Strategic Landpower: Make Explicit That Which is Implicit, and Do What Your Boss Needs You to Do

Gen. Robert W. Cone, U.S. Army, Retired, Col. Richard D. Creed Jr., U.S. Army, and Lt. Col. Adrian T. Bogart III, U.S. Army

Based on their personal experiences, the former TRADOC commander and two officers who served on his staff provide 12 principles to promote successful strategic-level leadership.

28 Hurtling Toward Failure: Complexity in Army Operations

Maj. Donald L. Kingston Jr., U.S. Army

The crash of Air France Flight 447 illustrates how the increased complexity of information systems and our reliance on them increase the risk of catastrophic mission failure.

33 Sustaining the Army National Guard as an Operational Force

Col. Thomas M. Zubik, U.S. Army Reserve, Col. Paul C. Hastings, U.S. Army National Guard, Retired, and Col. Michael J. Glisson, U.S. Army National Guard

Three officers assert the need for the Army National Guard to maintain its designation as an operational force and provide guidance on how to get it done.

44 The Defense Entrepreneurs Forum: Developing a Culture of Innovation

Lt. Col. Curtis D. Taylor, U.S. Army, and Maj. Nathan K. Finney, U.S. Army

To foster a culture of innovation, the Army needs a means for lower-ranking personnel to connect with one another to refine and incubate their ideas, and a forum to discuss them. The Defense Entrepreneurs Forum can provide that mechanism.

50 War as Political Work: Using Social Science for Strategic Success

Matthew J. Schmidt, Ph.D.

Army culture favors a quantitative/predictive approach to analyze problems. The author argues, however, that strategic thinking requires the relative subjectivity of a qualitative approach to problem solving.

58 Army Experimentation: Developing the Army of the Future—Army 2020

Van Brewer, Ph.D., and Capt. Michala Smith, U.S. Navy, Retired

The authors discuss how Army experimentation helps to validate emerging concepts and accurately predict the effect of future force structures and force reductions in real-world scenarios.

63 The Rise of Al Jazeera: The Need for Greater Engagement by the U.S. Department of Defense

Col. Shawn Stroud, U.S. Army

An experienced public affairs practitioner discusses the increasing legitimacy of Al Jazeera, particularly in the Arab world, and the need for the Army to foster a stronger relationship with one of the world’s largest and most influential media networks.

71 You Are Fired

Maj. Gen. Michael W. Symanski, U.S. Army Reserve, Retired

A perspective of leadership, both good and bad, is couched in a vignette where the reader becomes the subject of termination from a job.

77 America’s Frontier Wars: Lessons for Asymmetric Conflicts

The Honorable Ike Skelton

Originally published in 2001, this prophetic and insightful discussion by the late congressman espouses studying the past to prepare for the future.

84 REVIEW ESSAY - Rape in Wartime

Joseph Miller

87 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

109 Cover 3

Former Sgt. Kyle J. White was awarded the Medal of Honor by President Barack Obama in a ceremony at the White House on 14 May.

Spotlight Online Articles

Leader Prototypes and Assimilation: A Challenge to the Promise of Diversity

Col. Robert Mundell, U.S. Army

Published on 30 July 2014 -

"The culture that we are embedded in inevitably influences our views about leadership."

-Hofstede, 19931

The Army’s emphasis on diversity and inclusion is important in maintaining a future competitive advantage in today’s global security environment; understanding differences is central to the effective employment of landpower (soldiers and equipment) in and amongst different cultures. However, individual assimilation to cultural norms and embedded leader prototypes undermine the promise of diversity by suppressing individual identity.

 

The Outcome of War: A New Metric of Success against Insurgencies

Lt. Cdr. Daniel R. Green, U.S. Navy, PhD

Published on 31 July 2014 - Every military unit that goes to war reaches a point in its deployment where it takes stock of how it is doing, how its lethal and non-lethal operations are going, and whether its achievements further the goals of the broader military campaign. While this type of assessment is likely ongoing, there are times where it becomes more acute. It is at these moments, such as after an operation, when an after action report is drafted, or when the performance of a unit or individual is evaluated, that the true measure of success is determined.

 

The Challenge of Mission Command

Lt. Col. Thomas M. Feltey, U.S. Army and Capt. John F. Madden, U.S. Army

Published on 27 August 2014 -

"Eisenhower, the [war] department is filled with able men who analyze their problems well but feel compelled always to bring them to me for final solution. I must have assistants who will solve their own problems and tell me later what they have done.”

–General of the Army George C. Marshall in General of the Army: George C. Marshall, Soldier and Statesman

As the United States Army wraps up its longest war on record in Afghanistan, we are already preparing for future combat. The lessons of the last decade have taught Army leaders the importance of being adaptive and innovative in order to ensure success. In pursuit of innovation, the Army has turned to the concept of Mission Command, which is defined by United States Army Doctrine as both a warfighting function, and a philosophy of command.

September-October 2014

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Table of Contents

5 Noncommissioned Officers and Mission Command

Sgt. Maj. Dennis Eger, U.S. Army

The senior enlisted advisor for the Mission Command Center of Excellence highlights the need for noncommissioned officers at every level to understand the doctrinal concepts of mission command because they have a primary role in its success.

12 U.S. Army Physical Readiness Training Protocols

Capt. Nathan Showman, U.S. Army, and Phillip Henson, Ph.D.

Two fitness experts discuss the Army’s physical fitness training and identify ways to improve physical training programs to better prepare soldiers for combat activities and lower their incidence of injuries.

24 Building Partnership Capacity 101: The New Jordan Armed Forces Noncommissioned Officer Corps

Col. Joseph Rank, U.S. Army, and Lt. Col. Bill Saba, U.S. Army

The authors outline the steps used to stand up a noncommissioned officer corps in Jordan and the thought process behind each decision.

36 NCO 2020: A Concept for Self-Paced Learning in the Noncommissioned Officer Education System

Liston W. Bailey, Ph.D., and Ms. Tammy Bankus

Two experts in education discuss the merits of including self-paced learning in the Army’s Noncommissioned Officer Education System to cut costs, enhance the quality of NCO educational experiences, and incorporate learning principles associated with the Army Learning Concept 2015.

44 The Role of Character in Effective Leadership

Col. Robert Gerard, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired

A veteran of the Korean and Vietnam Wars highlights the exploits of former senior Army leader Gen. Glenn K. Otis, relating the general’s personal as well as professional attributes.

50 Afghanistan Endgame: Lessons from Cambodia 1973-1975

Lt. Col. Kevin D. Stringer, U.S. Army Reserve

The author compares the current situation in Afghanistan with that in 1970s Cambodia and advocates continued U.S. support to ensure the survival of the Afghan regime.

57 Transformational Stories: How the Weekend Safety Brief can be a Forum for the Professional Military Ethic

Maj. Joel P. Gleason, U.S. Army

The author provides an alternate approach to the standard weekend safety briefing, espousing its use as a vehicle to instill professional ethical understanding and behavior in soldiers.

65 The Importance of Teaching Followership in Professional Military Education

Lt. Col. Paul Berg, U.S. Army

Soldiers must be good followers as well as leaders. The author posits dynamic followership can be learned through the Professional Military Education System, and effective and courageous followers can prevent senior officers from making unethical decisions through professional dissent.

72 Macro-Ethics and Tactical Decision Making

Chaplain (Maj.) Robert C. Gresser, U.S. Army

An Army chaplain discusses strategic-level decision-making processes and the ethical implications of high-level decisions.

81 The Human Domain: The Army’s Necessary Push Toward Squishiness

Maj. Mark Herbert, U.S. Army

The social sciences can help us understand the human side of conflict and forecast human behavioral responses to military action. The concept of the human domain may assist us in understanding a situation and prevent escalation.

88 Retaining the Warrior Spirit

Maj. Andrew J. Knight, U.S. Army

The conclusion of combat operations will likely decrease the warrior spirit in the Army. The Army must seek out and retain officers with both heroic leadership and managerial skills to maintain this spirit.

101 The Morality of Intervention by Waging Irregular Warfare

Col. Daniel C. Hodne, U.S. Army

The author explores contemporary just war theory and introduces rationale to aid in determining how and when irregular warfare is morally justified. Understanding what constitutes moral justification for irregular warfare should be part of our joint and Army lexicon.

108 REVIEW ESSAY - Head Strong: How Psychology is Revolutionizing War

Maj. Andrew B. Stipp, U.S. Army

111 Book Reviews

Contemporary Readings for the Military Professional

129 Cover 3

Former Staff Sgt. Ryan M. Pitts was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor by President Barack Obama in a 21 July White House ceremony for his actions at Wanat Village, Afghanistan, on 13 July 2008.

Spotlight Online Articles

From Toxic to Tonic: Emotional Intelligence for the Toxic Leader

Mr. Gerald F. Sewell

Published on 7 October 2014 -

“The Army will produce professional leaders that practice the mission command philosophy whether conducting unified land operations or Army generating force functions. These leaders possess emotional intelligence and achieve credibility with external JIIM partners, allies, internal agencies, and stakeholders.”

The Army Leader Development Strategy 2013, p.6

So, what is emotional intelligence and why does the Army need it? Dr. Daniel Goleman, science reporter, psychologist, and author writes, in his 1998 bookWorking with Emotional Intelligence, “Emotional intelligence is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationships."1

 

The Army's Newest 360 Degree Program: A Half-Step Forward

Col. Michael F. Pappal, U.S. Army

Published on 30 October 2014 -

“People who are terrible to their subordinates may be perfectly civil and respectful up the chain of command. For a more senior person to identify a toxic person in the chain of command actually is a little harder than it may appear on the surface.”

–Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates1

An article published in the Army Times on Dec. 28, 2013, announced a plan by the Chief of Staff of the Army, Gen. Odierno, requiring battalion and brigade commanders across the Army to undergo the newest 360-degree assessment program, the Commander 360, starting at the beginning of fiscal year 2015.2

November-December 2014

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Cover

Letter from the Editor

Table of Contents

5 Assurance in Europe: Why Relationships Matter

Lt. Gen. Donald M. Campbell Jr., U.S. Army, and Maj. Michael T. Whitney, U.S. Army

The U.S. Army Europe commanding general discusses how the relationships developed as a result of forward stationing units in Europe enabled the rapid, successful deployment of troops in support of Operation Atlantic Resolve.

11 The M1 Abrams: Today and Tomorrow

Dr. Alec Wahlman and Col. Brian M. Drinkwine, U.S. Army, Retired

While the need for large concentrations of armored forces may have lessened, there is still a requirement in the U.S. Army for a lethal, mobile, and survivable armored vehicle.

21 Bringing Mobility to the Infantry Brigade Combat Team

Capt. Nathan Jennings, U.S. Army

The Army’s infantry brigade combat teams lack of mobility leaves them ill prepared for the diverse challenges of warfare in the twenty-first century.

28 Losing Our Way: The Disassociation of Reconnaissance and Security Organizations from Screen, Guard, and Cover Missions

Robert S. Cameron, Ph.D.

Reconnaissance and security organizations have lost the ability to conduct the traditional security missions of screen, guard, and cover. The author argues that these missions must be reintegrated into the mission essential task list of reconnaissance units.

36 The Pen and the Sword: The New Noncommissioned Officer Professional Development System—NCO 2020

Col. Alan G Bourque, U.S. Army, Retired; Aubrey G. Butts, Ph.D.; Lt. Col. Lary Dorsett, U.S. Army, Retired; and Command Sgt. Maj. Daniel Dailey, U.S. Army

There is a clear need for improved noncommissioned officer education and development. NCO 2020 will fulfill that need, developing flexible and adaptive NCO leaders who are prepared for the challenges of future battlefields.

42 Army Learning Concept 2015 is Underway

Chief Warrant Officer 5 John Robinson, Ed.D., U.S. Army, and Maj. Brian Davis, U.S. Marines, Retired

The U.S. Army Warrant Officer Career College has embraced Army Learning Concept 2015 and is in the process of revising their curriculum, fine-tuning delivery methods, and educating their new instructors to reflect the Army’s new approach to institutional learning.

47 The Challenge of Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Korean Peninsula

Lt. Col. Scott Daulton, U.S. Army, and Lt. Col. Bill Shavce, U.S. Army

Two officers discuss the challenges associated with combating and eliminating weapons of mass destruction and share how U.S. forces prepare for this critical mission on the Korean Peninsula.

54 Survivability, Sustainability, and Maneuverability: The Need for Joint Unity of Effort in Implementing the DOD Arctic Strategy at the Tactical and Operational Levels

Capt. Nathan Fry, U.S. Army National Guard

An officer trained in Arctic survival posits that the U.S. Army is ill-prepared to conduct operations in the Arctic environment and provides recommendations on how U.S. forces can attain the unique skills.

63 What Lessons Did We Learn (or Re-Learn) About Military Advising After 9/11?

Lt. Col. Remi Hajjar, U.S. Army

Military advisors require a sophisticated array of skills to successfully accomplish advisory missions. The Army must capture the valuable lessons learned during advisory missions in Iraq and Afghanistan.

76 Operation Serval: Another Beau Geste of France in Sub-Saharan Africa?

Lt. Gen. Olivier Tramond, French Army, and Lt. Col. Philippe Seigneur, French Army

Two French officers provide lessons learned from Operation Serval, a multinational military operation in Mali, to clear radical Islamist insurgents from that country.

87 Entanglement: Using Social Network Analysis for Military Justice Applications

Maj. Dan Maurer, U.S. Army

Social network analysis is a method for discovering and describing webs of relationships among social actors. The author provides innovative applications of social network analysis within military justice practice.

97 Leveraging the Power of Loyal Dissent in the U.S. Army

Maj. Thomas B. Craig, U.S. Army

Loyal dissent is not a personal attack on a leader’s authority, but a way for subordinates to contribute to the success of the team. When executed properly, leaders use loyal dissent to create the conditions for innovation by utilizing subordinates to their fullest potential. This article won 3rd place in the 2013-1 MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition

104 Two Faces of Critical Thinking for the Reflective Military Practitioner

Col. Christopher Paparone, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired

Two paradigms—logico-scientism and interpretivism—are quintessential for military decision making. These two paradigms are complementary, and Army leadership must understand and use both to master critical thinking.

111 No Shortage of Campfires: Keeping the Army Adaptable, Agile, and Innovative in the Austere Times

Col. John Culclasure, U.S. Air Force, Retired

The author draws lessons from Gen. Eisenhower to show how the Army can overcome fiscal constraints and maintain its edge by focusing on our soldiers’ best weapon for adapting and innovating: the cognitive process. This article won 1st place in the 2014 General William E. DePuy Combined Arms Writing Competition.

121 REVIEW ESSAY - Blood of Tyrants: George Washington and the Forging of the Presidency

Lt. Col. Harry C. Garner, U.S. Army, Retired

124 Special Review: Genocide

Four readers provide reviews of books that relate to the topic of genocide.

131 Book Reviews

Readers provide analyses of contemporary readings for the military professional

146 Annual Index

153 Cover 3

1st Lieutenant Alonzo Hersford Cushing will be awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously to recognize his 3 July 1863 actions at Gettysburg, Pa.

154 2015 Wall Calendar

Spotlight Online Articles

Filling a Gap: Network Engagement

Randall Munch and Chris Worret

Published on 21 November 2014 -

"The U.S. must never enter a conflict with a strategic plan limited to engaging and destroying an enemy’s forces. Lasting strategic success is not a function of enemy units eliminated or targets destroyed. A successful strategic outcome rests…on the ability of soldiers, Marines and special operations forces to defeat an enemy force and seize and hold territory by direct physical interaction with local populations…in order to create the conditions of a lasting peace."

–Lt. Gen. Keith C. Walker, while serving as Training and Doctrine Command Deputy Commanding General of Futures and Director, Army Capabilities Integration Center, February 2013.1

Lt. Gen. Walker’s comments above imply that influence within the human domain is a critical element in achieving strategic success and lasting peace. Soldiers engage in “direct physical interaction with local populations” in order to exert influence. His comments reinforce one of the key lessons learned during the past decade of war. The military needs to better understand the operational environment (OE) in order to more effectively engage the human domain. The Joint Staff J7 Decade of War (DOW) study identifies this as one of 11 major lessons learned, stated as follows, “A failure to recognize, acknowledge, and accurately define the operational environment led to a mismatch between forces, capabilities, missions, and goals.”2

 

Case Study: Gen. Patton’s Armored Force and Security Force Assistance Teams

Maj. Timothy Meadors, U.S. Army

Published on 5 December 2014 - The military’s rapid approach to the post-2014 mission in Afghanistan, provides a unique opportunity to reflect on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). These reflections will significantly contribute to the development of a stronger and more adaptable force. Tactical, operational, and strategic experiences over the duration of both operations will undoubtedly contribute to the country’s future employment of the military.

 

Maintaining Situational Awareness: Untethering the Commander from the Command Post

Lt. Col. James Dowdy, U.S. Army, retired; Col. Calvin Johnson, U.S. Army, retired; and Brett Burland

Published on 16 December 2014 - Commanders have unique information and visualization requirements that create challenges for executing Mission Command. Using the guidelines prescribed in Army Regulation 5-5 (the regulation that prescribes policy, guidance, performance and evaluation for the Army Study Program), The Mission Command Battle Lab at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., conducted a study focused on the information needs of brigade commanders. This study included several months of interviews of current and former brigade commanders to capture their thoughts on information and capabilities brigade commanders need.